Global & Disaster Medicine

Despite South Sudan’s crippling civil war, the country has interrupted the transmission of Guinea worm disease

The Lancet

“…..A breakthrough came in 2001 when distribution of over 9 million portable, straw-like plastic pipes with cloth or metal filters allowed each at-risk person access to water free from water fleas. Since then, targeted health education and village volunteers have also contributed…..”

The Carter Center

A not-for-profit, nongovernmental organization, The Carter Center has helped to improve life for people in over 80 countries by resolving conflicts; advancing democracy, human rights, and economic opportunity; preventing diseases; and improving mental health care.  The Carter Center was founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and former First Lady Rosalynn Carter, in partnership with Emory University, to advance peace and health worldwide.”

Humans become infected by drinking unfiltered water containing copepods (small crustaceans) which are infected with larvae of D. medinensis The number 1. Following ingestion, the copepods die and release the larvae, which penetrate the host stomach and intestinal wall and enter the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space The number 2. After maturation into adults and copulation, the male worms die and the females (length: 70 to 120 cm) migrate in the subcutaneous tissues towards the skin surface The number 3. Approximately one year after infection, the female worm induces a blister on the skin, generally on the distal lower extremity, which ruptures. When this lesion comes into contact with water, a contact that the patient seeks to relieve the local discomfort, the female worm emerges and releases larvae The number 4. The larvae are ingested by a copepod The number 5 and after two weeks (and two molts) have developed into infective larvae The number 6. Ingestion of the copepods closes the cycle The number 1.


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