Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Kids-Infants’ Category

Infant Safe Sleep Practices Not Well-Followed

CDC MMWR

Bombard JM, Kortsmit K, Warner L, et al. Vital Signs: Trends and Disparities in Infant Safe Sleep Practices — United States, 2009–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 9 January 2018. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6701e1.

Key Points

•Infant safe sleep practices recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), including placing infants to sleep on their backs, room sharing but not bed sharing, and keeping soft objects and loose bedding out of the infant’s sleep environment, can help reduce sleep-related infant deaths; however, implementation of these recommendations remains suboptimal.

•Approximately one in five mothers reported placing their infant to sleep on their side or stomach. More than one half reported bed sharing with their infant, and more than one third reported using soft bedding in the infant’s sleep environment. Unsafe sleep practices varied by state, race/ethnicity, age, education, and participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

•Health care providers and state-based and community-based programs can identify barriers to safe sleep practices and provide culturally appropriate counseling and messaging to improve infant safe sleep practices.

•Additional information is available at https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/.

Introduction: There have been dramatic improvements in reducing infant sleep-related deaths since the 1990s, when recommendations were introduced to place infants on their backs for sleep. However, there are still approximately 3,500 sleep-related deaths among infants each year in the United States, including those from sudden infant death syndrome, accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, and unknown causes. Unsafe sleep practices, including placing infants in a nonsupine (on side or on stomach) sleep position, bed sharing, and using soft bedding in the sleep environment (e.g., blankets, pillows, and soft objects) are modifiable risk factors for sleep-related infant deaths.

Methods: CDC analyzed 2009–2015 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data to describe infant sleep practices. PRAMS, a state-specific and population-based surveillance system, monitors self-reported behaviors and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy among women with a recent live birth. CDC examined 2015 data on nonsupine sleep positioning, bed sharing, and soft bedding use by state and selected maternal characteristics, as well as linear trends in nonsupine sleep positioning from 2009 to 2015.

Results: In 2015, 21.6% of respondents from 32 states and New York City reported placing their infant in a nonsupine sleep position; this proportion ranged from 12.2% in Wisconsin to 33.8% in Louisiana. Infant nonsupine sleep positioning was highest among respondents who were non-Hispanic blacks. Nonsupine sleep positioning prevalence was higher among respondents aged <25 years compared with ≥25 years, those who had completed ≤12 years compared with >12 years of education, and those who participated in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children during pregnancy. Based on trend data from 15 states, placement of infants in a nonsupine sleep position decreased significantly from 27.2% in 2009 to 19.4% in 2015. In 2015, over half of respondents (61.4%) from 14 states reported bed sharing with their infant, and 38.5% from 13 states and New York City reported using any soft bedding, most commonly bumper pads and thick blankets.

Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice: Improved implementation of the safe sleep practices recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics could help reduce sleep-related infant mortality. Evidence-based interventions could increase use of safe sleep practices, particularly within populations whose infants might be at higher risk for sleep-related deaths.

 


January 7-13: Folic Acid Awareness week

CDC

Facts About Folic Acid

Woman reading nutritional information on a cereal box. Nutrition label highlighting 100% Folic Acid.

CDC urges women to take 400 mcg of folic acid every day, starting at least one month before getting pregnant, to help prevent major birth defects of the baby’s brain and spine.

About folic acid

Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies use it to make new cells. Everyone needs folic acid.

Why folic acid is so important

Folic acid is very important because it can help prevent some major birth defects(https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/index.html) of the baby’s brain and spine (anencephaly(https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/anencephaly.html) and spina bifida(https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/spinabifida)).

How much folic acid a woman needs

400 micrograms (mcg) every day.

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When to start taking folic acid

For folic acid to help prevent some major birth defects, a woman needs to start taking it at least one month before she becomes pregnant and while she is pregnant.

Every woman needs folic acid every day, whether she’s planning to get pregnant or not, for the healthy new cells the body makes daily. Think about the skin, hair, and nails. These – and other parts of the body – make new cells each day.

How a woman can get enough folic acid

There are two easy ways to be sure to get enough folic acid each day:

  1. Take a vitamin that has folic acid in it every day.
    1. Most multivitamins sold in the United States have the amount of folic acid women need each day. Women can also choose to take a small pill (supplement) that has only folic acid in it each day.
    2. Multivitamins and folic acid pills can be found at most local pharmacy, grocery, or discount stores. Check the label to be sure it contains 100% of the daily value (DV) of folic acid, which is 400 micrograms (mcg).
  2. Eat a bowl of breakfast cereal that has 100% of the daily value of folic acid every day.
    1. Not every cereal has this amount. Check the label on the side of the box, and look for one that has “100%” next to folic acid.

Venezuela: Doctors at 21 public hospitals in 17 states across the country said that their ERs were being overwhelmed by children with severe malnutrition

NY Times

  • Doctors are seeing the kind of extreme malnutrition often found in refugee camps

 


11/14/2012: A 20-year-old man shoots and kills his mother at their Newtown, Connecticut, home then drives to nearby Sandy Hook Elementary School, where he kills 20 first graders and six school employees before turning a gun on himself.

History Channel

NY Times

 


French baby milk formula maker Lactalis has ordered a global product recall over fears of salmonella contamination because 26 infants in the country have become sick since early December.

BBC

“…..Lactalis is one of the world’s biggest dairy producers. Company spokesman Michel Nalet told AFP “nearly 7,000 tonnes” of production may have been contaminated….”


12/1/1958: A fire at a grade school in Chicago kills 90 students

History Channel

  • Before December 1958, the building did not have any sprinklers and there were no regular preparatory drills conducted.

 


Doctors Without Borders will urge India to remain the “pharmacy of the developing world” and rethink decision that solidifies Pfizer monopoly on critical pneumonia vaccine

MSF

“…..The U.S.-based drug corporation’s unmerited patent prevents vaccine manufacturers in India from developing and marketing PCV13 until 2026, depriving countless children of the opportunity to be protected against pneumonia, which kills 2,500 kids per day…..There are currently only two companies that make a pneumonia vaccine, Pfizer (PCV13) and GlaxoSmithKline (PCV10). These companies have already made more than $40 billion on their vaccines and have consistently fought to prevent others from entering the market with lower-price versions……”

 


Pneumonia takes the lives of 920,000 children annually—a life every 2 minutes, more than malaria and diarrhea combined.

Global Health Now

  • While pneumonia deaths have dropped by nearly 50% since 2000, too many kids still don’t have access to vaccines that can prevent the disease from taking hold in the first place.
  • Approximately 1/2 of the world’s children are still not receiving PCV (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine).

Save The Children Fighting for Breath

 


NYC kids exposed to terror

NY Times

“……Hudson River Middle is a small progressive public school on Warren Street at the corner of West Street, one short block south of where Sayfullo Saipov crashed his rental truck into a school bus on Halloween, after plowing the truck down a crowded bike path along the river, killing eight people and injuring a dozen, including two students on the bus. The building also houses a second school — P.S. 89, the Liberty School — which serves children from prekindergarten through fifth grade, who were being let out on Tuesday afternoon while the attack was unfolding. Children and parents and caregivers already outside, in an enclosed yard, were brought in and sequestered for safety in a windowless cafeteria where teachers foraged for snacks. The middle-school students were sent to a gym on the third floor.

Although the school year is relatively new, the younger children had already participated in lockdown drills. They were told that this one was real, that they were being kept safe inside from something unsafe happening outside. In morning meeting the following day, Connie Ryan, a prekindergarten teacher told her students what a great job the police had done in protecting everyone. During play, she said, a lot of children sent Lego Duplo people to jail.

One block north, across the street at Stuyvesant High School, there are two phases of dismissal, one at 2:45 and another at 3:30. Some students who left in the first round on Tuesday were crossing a popular footbridge connecting the campus to TriBeCa when the chaos erupted, giving them a full view of the carnage. When it was clear to administrators that something terrible was happening, an announcement was made over the loud speaker that the school was implementing a “shelter in,” a modified lockdown that forbids students from leaving the school but allows them to move within the building……”


India’s Supreme Court on Wednesday struck down a decades-old clause in the country’s rape laws permitting a man to have sex with his wife if she is aged 15 to 18 – ruling that it was rape, and therefore a criminal offence.

Thomas Reuters

‘…..”For the longest time, traffickers have been using marriage with minors as an alibi to rape girls in the first instance, to break them, before selling them to pimps and brothel owners,” said Adrian Phillips, an advocate from Justice and Care, which fights trafficking…..Almost 20,000 women and children were victims of human trafficking in India in 2016, a rise of nearly 25 percent from the previous year, according to government data…….’

 


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