Global & Disaster Medicine

During the 2014–2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 13 type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) were isolated from 6 polio patients and 7 healthy contacts.

EID

Fernandez-Garcia MD, Majumdar M, Kebe O, Fall AD, Kone M, Kande M, et al. Emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses during Ebola virus disease outbreak, Guinea, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Jan [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2401.171174

DOI: 10.3201/eid2401.171174

“…Although OPV has many advantages (easy administration by mouth, low cost, effective intestinal immunity, and durable humoral immunity), it has the disadvantage of genetic instability. Because of the plasticity and rapid evolution of poliovirus genomes and selective pressures during replication in the human intestine, vaccine poliovirus can lose key genetic determinants of attenuation through mutation or recombination with closely related polio and nonpolio enterovirus strains, acquiring the neurovirulence and infectivity characteristics of wild-type poliovirus (WPV) (3). Because of this genetic instability, in settings where a substantial proportion of the population is susceptible to poliovirus, OPV use can lead to poliovirus emergence and sustained person-to-person transmission and spread in the community of genetically divergent circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs). ….”


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