Global & Disaster Medicine

Peru and Ecuador have recorded cases of Mayaro virus (MAYV) in 2019.

Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization. Epidemiological Alert:
Mayaro fever. 1 May 2019, Washington, D.C.: PAHO/WHO; 2019

Mayaro fever is a zoonosis caused by an arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, Togavirus family. Transmission by Haemagogus mosquitoes has been documented. Human cases are associated with recent exposures to humid forest environments inhabited by these vectors.
In the first days, the disease presents as a nonspecific clinical picture similar to other arboviruses: fever, headache, myalgia, retro-ocular pain, chills, severe arthralgia, dizziness, nausea, photophobia, anorexia, often incapacitating joint edema, rash (mainly on the chest, legs, back, arms and less frequently in the face), abdominal pain, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, and in some cases mild hemorrhagic disease symptoms have been described.
The incubation period is relatively short, ranging between 1 to 12 days. The disease is self-limiting, with a duration from 3 to 5 days, with persistence of arthralgia that can remain for weeks or months; a fatal case with encephalopathy has been documented.

Symptomatic management with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), rest,
hydration, and supportive treatment of possible complications is recommended, following
the exclusion of more severe diseases such as malaria, dengue, or bacterial infections.
There is no specific antiviral treatment for Mayaro virus infection.

In 2019, 2 cases were confirmed in Peru in the provinces of Quispicanchis (Cusco Region)
and La Mar (Ayacucho Region) (16).
Additionally, on 26 April 2019, Ecuador reported that of 34 samples that were negative for
dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and leptospirosis, 5 were positive for Mayaro.

Ecuador Map

 


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