Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Migration’ Category

Migrants and asylum seekers arriving in northern Greece are subject to “appalling reception and detention conditions,.”

HRW


Lesbos, Greece: Currently, there are over 8,000 people crammed into a space designed for 3,000 in Moria refugee camp that is leading to clashes and riots, incidents of sexual violence, and a sinking state of mental health.

MSF


Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm in Myanmar Refugees, Thailand, 2012–2015

O’Connell EM, Mitchell T, Papaiakovou M, Pilotte N, Lee D, Weinberg M, et al. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm in Myanmar Refugees, Thailand, 2012–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(8):1472-1481. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2408.180280

hookworm

During 2012–2015, US-bound refugees living in Myanmar–Thailand border camps (n = 1,839) were surveyed for hookworm infection and treatment response by using quantitative PCR. Samples were collected at 3 time points: after each of 2 treatments with albendazole and after resettlement in the United States. Baseline prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm was 25.4%, Ancylostoma duodenale 0%, and Ancylostoma ceylanicum (a zoonosis) 5.4%. Compared with N. americanus prevalence, A. ceylanicum hookworm prevalence peaked in younger age groups, and blood eosinophil concentrations during A. ceylanicum infection were higher than those for N. americanus infection. Female sex was associated with a lower risk for either hookworm infection. Cure rates after 1 dose of albendazole were greater for A. ceylanicum (93.3%) than N. americanus (65.9%) hookworm (p<0.001). Lower N. americanus hookworm cure rates were unrelated to β-tubulin single-nucleotide polymorphisms at codons 200 or 167. A. ceylanicum hookworm infection might be more common in humans than previously recognized.

Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus lifecycle

“…..The most serious effects of hookworm infection are the development of anemia and protein deficiency caused by blood loss at the site of the intestinal attachment of the adult worms. When children are continuously infected by many worms, the loss of iron and protein can retard growth and mental development.….”

 


Off the northern coast of Cyprus: At least 19 people are dead after a ship carrying around 150 presumed migrants capsized in the Mediterranean, but 103 have been rescued so far.

Fox News

 


Jordan | Syrian Arab Republic: Dara’a, Qunaitra, Sweida Flash Update as of 7/2/18

RW

Highlights

  • Sustained hostilities in south-west Syria since 17 June have led to the displacement of an estimated 271,800 individuals as of 2 July. Of those, approximately 60,000 displaced to areas in close proximity to the Nasib/Jaber border crossing with Jordan, including the free zone, and some 164,000 IDPs have moved towards camps and villages in Quneitra, close to the Golan Heights area.
  • Since the start of military operations, the UN has received reports of dozens deaths, including women and children. Additional reports also suggest indiscriminate attacks on health facilities, schools, civil defense centers and offices of local NGOs.
  • On 1-2 July, the UN provided humanitarian assistance to displaced individuals at the Jaber/Nasib border area in Jordan. The 37-truck convoy carried sufficient water and NFI stocks to cover the needs of an estimated 35,000 people.

 

 

Highlights  Sustained hostilities in south-west Syria since 17 June have led to the displacement of an estimated 271,800 individuals as of 2 July. Of those, approximately 60,000 displaced to areas in close proximity to the Nasib/Jaber border crossing with Jordan, including the free zone, and some 164,000 IDPs have moved towards camps and villages in Quneitra, close to the Golan Heights area.  Since the start of military operations, the UN has received reports of dozens deaths, including women and children. Additional reports also suggest indiscriminate attacks on health facilities, schools, civil defense centers and offices of local NGOs.  On 1-2 July, the UN provided humanitarian assistance to displaced individuals at the Jaber/Nasib border area in Jordan. The 37-truck convoy carried sufficient water and NFI stocks to cover the needs of an estimated 35,000 people.

Situation Overview
Since the start of military operations in south-west Syria, the UN has received dozens of reports of civilian deaths, including women and children. Additional reports also suggest indiscriminate attacks on health facilities, schools, civil defense centers and NGO offices. Most health and educational facilities in southern Syria remain closed due to widespread airstrikes and hostilities on the ground.
Sustained hostilities since 17 June have led to the displacement of an estimated 271,800 individuals within non-state armed group-controlled areas in Dara’a and Quneitra governorate as of 2 July. Of those, approximately 164,000 IDPs have moved towards camps and villages in Quneitra, close to the Golan Heights area, while some 60,000 have been displaced to areas in close proximity of the border with Jordan, including the Nasib/Jaber border crossing and the Free Zone. The Governments of Jordan and Israel continue to maintain the borders closed and have announced that Syrian IDPs will not be permitted to cross into their respective countries.
The living conditions of IDPs stranded at the Jordanian border are severe, with IDPs lacking shelter and basic items and subject to dusty desert winds and high temperatures of up to 45 degrees Celsius. The displaced lack regular access to clean drinking water and healthcare, and local sources on the ground report that at least twelve children, two women, and one elderly man died in areas close to the Jordanian border due to scorpion bites, dehydration and diseases transmitted through contaminated water. Some critical medical cases, however, have been able to seek treatment at medical facilities in Ramtha and Irbid in Jordan.
Between 29 June and 1 July, in response to intense air and ground-based strikes on various areas of Dara’a governorate, the local populations of several areas located in south-eastern Syria, such as Jizeh, Mseifra, Sayda, Kahil, and Tiba, pre-emptively left their towns for areas they perceive to be safer. The coinciding displacement of humanitarian workers from the area and the high fuel prices and/or lack of fuel have impacted the ability of humanitarian organizations to relocate humanitarian supplies in eastern Dara’a to the new areas of population concentration.

Since the Government of Syria (GoS) announced the establishment of four “corridors” on 27 June, through which individuals can move towards GoS-controlled areas, some initial estimates indicate that 12,000 to 15,000 people have reportedly crossed into GoS-held areas in Dara’a governorate. Many of the IDPs are making their way towards the Jbab shelter, with approximately 2,500 people still at the shelter, whilst others have left towards areas in which they can stay with host communities and secure alternative shelter arrangements. As of 30 June, there have reportedly been 80 medevac cases from Jbab to hospitals in Damascus, and some 400 families have moved onwards to Rural Damascus. An estimated 2,000 people have also crossed into Sweida governorate.

Humanitarian Access

Humanitarian Access (on hold): Since 27 June, the UN has not been able to proceed with humanitarian cross-border convoys due to ongoing hostilities and lack of security guarantees from the parties. A convoy continues to be stationed at Ramtha ready to cross once security conditions allow  South-West Dar’a towards North-West Dar’a /Qunaitra (open)  West to East crossing inside Syria (open)  Ramtha UN convoy crossing point from Jordan remains open, with operations on hold.
Jordan | Syria: Humanitarian Situation in Dar’a, Qunaitra and Sweida, Flash Update, as of 2 July 2018

Humanitarian cross-line access (requiring access approvals): The United Nations and its humanitarian partners stand ready to respond through cross-line deliveries from inside Syria. These require access permissions from the Government of Syria.

Medical evacuations (partial): Medical evacuations of urgent cases who require treatment in Jordan require the permission of the Government of Jordan. Negotiations to secure access for emergency medical evacuations remains ongoing, with twelve cases treated at the Ramtha and Irbid hospitals.

Commercial and civilian access routes between Dar’a and Qunaitra and Sweida (suspended):
Many commercial and civilian access roads between the three southern governorates have been closed or became inaccessible. However, some crossings remain open for civilian and commercial movements.  The Sweida road is reported to be closed, preventing the replenishments of markets.  Kherbet Ghazaleh (Gharia West): closed for commercial traffic  Kherbet Ghazaleh (Dael): closed for commercial traffic  Kafar Sham (Dier Bakhat): closed for commercial traffi Preparedness and Response  On 1-2 July, an inter-agency UN emergency convoy comprising 37 trucks (mobilized jointly by UNHCR, UNICEF, UNFPA and WFP) was dispatched to the border area in Jordan. The convoy carried sufficient water and NFI stocks for 35,000 beneficiaries (10,000 at the free zone and a further 25,000 beyond). On 1 July, 869 UNICEF family hygiene kits and 580 UNFPA dignity kits and 150 UNFPA clean home delivery kits were delivered to displaced communities at the Tower 58 crossing point. UNHCR partners provided health care services to approximately 40 patients at the free zone through a medical team comprised of one medical doctor, two nurses and a pharmacist assistant. A total of twelve cases were referred to the Ramtha and Irbid hospitals.  As of 30 June, WFP, through partners on the ground, has distributed emergency food assistance sufficient for some 180,000 people, with some people receiving a second round of assistance. Deliveries include ready-to-eat rations (RTEs), regular food rations, and nutrition supplies for the prevention of malnutrition in children under two years of age. WFP, through its partners, also distributed 10,220 food rations sufficient for 51,100 people in Tal Shihab, in addition to 12,500 food rations sufficient for 62,500 people at the Nasib and Mataiyeh border area.  Core relief items, including basic shelter materials sufficient for 60,000 people, have been prepositioned. The UN stands ready to scale up response to people in need through the most direct routes wherever access allows.

For further information, please contact: Sarah Muscroft, Head of OCHA Jordan, muscroft@un.org Kristele Younes, Head of OCHA Syria, younes4@un.org

For more information, please visit www.unocha.org and www.reliefweb.int.


Syrian refugees fleeing the current government offensive face scorpion bites, dehydration, and contaminated water,

NY Times

  • At least 15 Syrians have died in camps near the Jordanian border because of “scorpion bites, dehydration and diseases transmitted through contaminated water,” according to a report published this week by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  • Twelve of the dead were children; two women and one elderly man also died.

  • More than 320,000 people in the Dara’a region have been displaced by the fighting

  • Most are living in campsites near the Jordanian border and the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights without adequate shelter, food or water.

  • Thousands are sleeping in the open desert.

 


“At least 100 migrants died in a shipwreck occured off Tripoli. 3 young children among the dead. The actual number of missing still uncertain.”

CNN


At least 45,000 people have fled the upsurge in fighting in Syria’s southwestern Deraa province, heading toward the border with Jordan.

Reuters


Forced Displacement in 2017

ReliefWeb

“…….In its annual Global Trends report, released today, UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency said 68.5 million people were displaced as of the end of 2017. Among them were 16.2 million people who became displaced during 2017 itself, either for the first time or repeatedly – indicating a huge number of people on the move and equivalent to 44,500 people being displaced each day, or a person becoming displaced every two seconds.

Refugees who have fled their countries to escape conflict and persecution accounted for 25.4 million of the 68.5 million. This is 2.9 million more than in 2016, also the biggest increase UNHCR has seen in a single year. Asylum-seekers, who were still awaiting the outcome of their claims to refugee status as of 31 December 2017, meanwhile rose by around 300,000 to 3.1 million. People displaced inside their own country accounted for 40 million of the total, slightly fewer than the 40.3 million in 2016…….”

preview

 


Reporting Forced Displacement – Key Definitions

ReliefWeb

UNHCR does not use the term ‘migrant’ to describe people who are forced to flee.

  • Refugee: A person who has fled their country and needs ‘international protection’ because of a risk of violence or persecution were they to return home. This includes people fleeing wars. The term has its roots in international legal instruments, notably the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and the 1969 OAU Convention. You can acquire refugee status by applying for it individually, or in cases of large influx by being given it on a “prima facie” basis. Refugees cannot be returned to their home country unless it is on a strictly voluntary basis.
  • Asylum Seeker: A person who has applied on an individual basis for refugee status and is awaiting the result. Asylum seekers are given ‘international protection’ while their claims are being assessed, and like refugees may not be returned home unless it is on a voluntary basis.
  • Internally displaced person: Internally displaced people, often known by the abbreviation IDPs, are those who are forced to flee their homes to elsewhere in their own country.
  • Stateless person: Someone who is without a nationality of any country, and consequently lacks the human rights and access to services of those who have citizenship. It is possible to be stateless and a refugee simultaneously.

 


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