Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Zika virus’ Category

August 20: World Mosquito Day

Malaria, Dengue, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Chickungunya, Kunjin Jamestown Canyon Virus, Zika, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, St Loius Encephalitis, Pogostra Disease, Ross River Virus, Lymphatic Filariasis, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Murray Valley Encephalitis, Rift Valley Fever, Lacrosse Encephalitis.

And the list goes on.”


“Zika has completely fallen off the radar, but the lack of media attention doesn’t mean it’s disappeared,” said Dr. Karin Nielson, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at U.C.L.A.

NYT

Document:

Zika-WHO_7-2019

Countries and territories with established Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors, but no known cases of Zika virus transmission:
AFRO
Benin; Botswana; Chad; Comoros; Congo; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Kenya; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Réunion; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; South Africa; South Sudan; Togo; United Republic of Tanzania; Zambia; Zimbabwe
32

AMRO/PAHO Uruguay 1 EMRO Djibouti; Egypt; Oman; Pakistan; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; Yemen 8 EURO Georgia; Região Autónoma da Madeira – Portugal; Russian Federation; Turkey 4 SEARO Bhutan; Nepal; Sri Lanka; Timor-Leste                                                                                                                                                                                                      4

WPRO
Australia; Brunei Darussalam; China; Christmas Island; Guam; Kiribati; Nauru; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands (Commonwealth of the); Tokelau; Tuvalu; Wallis and Futuna
12

61


Illnesses on the rise from mosquito, tick, and flea bites

CDC

Overview

Almost everyone has been bitten by a mosquito, tick, or flea. These can be vectors for spreading pathogens (germs). A person who gets bitten by a vector and gets sick has a vector-borne disease, like dengue, Zika, Lyme, or plague. Between 2004 and 2016, more than 640,000 cases of these diseases were reported, and 9 new germs spread by bites from infected mosquitoes and ticks were discovered or introduced in the US. State and local health departments and vector control organizations are the nation’s main defense against this increasing threat. Yet, 84% of local vector control organizations lack at least 1 of 5 core vector control competencies. Better control of mosquitoes and ticks is needed to protect people from these costly and deadly diseases.

State and local public health agencies can

  • Build and sustain public health programs that test and track germs and the mosquitoes and ticks  that spread them.
  • Train vector control staff on 5 core competencies for conducting prevention and control activities.  http://bit.ly/2FG1OMwExternal
  • Educate the public about how to prevent bites and control germs spread by mosquitoes, ticks,  and fleas in their communities.
Problem

Increasing threat, limited capacity to respond

More cases in the US (2004-2016)

  • The number of reported cases of disease from mosquito, tick, and flea bites has more than tripled.
  • More than 640,000 cases of these diseases were reported from 2004 to 2016.
  • Disease cases from ticks have doubled.
  • Mosquito-borne disease epidemics happen more frequently.

More germs (2004-2016)

  • Chikungunya and Zika viruses caused outbreaks in the US for the first time.
  • Seven new tickborne germs can infect people in the US.

More people at risk

  • Commerce moves mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas around the world.
  • Infected travelers can introduce and spread germs across the world.
  • Mosquitoes and ticks move germs into new areas of the US, causing more people to be at risk.

The US is not fully prepared

    • Local and state health departments and vector control organizations face increasing demands to respond to these threats.
    • More than 80% of vector control organizations report needing improvement in 1 or more of 5 core competencies, such as testing for pesticide resistance.
    • More proven and publicly accepted mosquito and tick control methods are needed to prevent and control these diseases.

Graphic: Disease cases from infected mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas have tripled in 13 years

Graphic: Disease cases from mosquitoes (2004-2016, reported)

Graphic: Disease cases from ticks (2004-2016, reported)


“Scary Monsters and Nice Sprites” in the fight against Aedes Aegyptii

Acta Tropica

“…..The observation that such music can delay host attack, reduce blood feeding, and disrupt mating provides new avenues for the development of music-based personal protective and control measures against Aedes-borne diseases…..”

Acta Tropica

Volume 194, June 2019, Pages 93-99

Acta Tropica

The electronic song “Scary Monsters and Nice Sprites” reduces host attack and mating success in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti


Latest research: Immune globulin shows promise for severe Zika thrombocytopenia

Oxford Academic

Elizabeth A Van Dyne, Paige Neaterour, Aidsa Rivera, Melissa Bello-Pagan, Laura Adams, Jorge Munoz-Jordan, Priscilla Baez, Myriam Garcia, Stephen H Waterman, Nimia Reyes, Lisa C Richardson, Brenda Rivera-Garcia, Tyler M Sharp; Incidence and Outcome of Severe and Non-severe Thrombocytopenia Associated with Zika Virus Infection — Puerto Rico, 2016, Open Forum Infectious Diseases, , ofy325, https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy325

“…..Of 37,878 patients with ZIKV infection, 47 (0.1%) had thrombocytopenia in the absence of an alternative etiology (1.4 cases/100,000 population), including 12 with severe thrombocytopenia. Most patients with thrombocytopenia were adult (77%) and male (53%). Platelet nadir occurred a median of six (range: 1–16) and five (range: 0–34) days after symptom onset for patients with severe and non-severe thrombocytopenia, respectively. Among patients with severe thrombocytopenia, all had bleeding, 33% were admitted to the ICU, and 8% died; 50% were treated for ITP. Among five patients with severe thrombocytopenia who received intravenous immunoglobulin, median platelet count increase was 112 X 10 9/L (range: 65–202 X 10 9/L). In contrast, among four patients who received platelet transfusion, median increase in platelet count was 8.5 X 10 9/L (range: -6–52 x 10 9/L)……”


 


Current Emergency Use Authorizations

Emergency Use Authorization, with Emergency sign

FDA

The Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) authority allows FDA to help strengthen the nation’s public health protections against CBRN threats by facilitating the availability and use of MCMs needed during public health emergencies.

Under section 564 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act), the FDA Commissioner may allow unapproved medical products or unapproved uses of approved medical products to be used in an emergency to diagnose, treat, or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases or conditions caused by CBRN threat agents when there are no adequate, approved, and available alternatives.

Section 564 of the FD&C Act was amended by the Project Bioshield Act of 2004 and the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 (PAHPRA), which was enacted in March 2013

Current EUAs

The tables below provide information on current EUAs:


India is currently experiencing its largest Zika virus outbreak

Alexander G Watts, M S A Carmen Huber, Isaac I Bogoch, Oliver J Brady, Moritz U G Kraemer, Kamran Khan; Potential Zika virus spread within and beyond India, Journal of Travel Medicine, , tay132, https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/tay132

“……By the end of October, 147 cases had been reported in Jaipur, a popular tourist destination, and as of Nov 2, neighboring Gujarat state reported 1 case and Madhya Pradesh state reported 3 infections…..”


Aedes albopictus, a vector for Zika, Dengue, and Yellow Fever, has been spotted in Eindhoven, Netherlands

The Dutch News

 


The mosquito, Aedes albopictus, that is responsible for transmitting Zika virus and yellow fever is closing in on Portugal

The Portugal News

 


WHO: Prioritizing Emerging Infectious Diseases in Need of Research and Development

The World Health Organization R&D Blueprint aims to accelerate the availability of medical technologies during epidemics by focusing on a list of prioritized emerging diseases for which medical countermeasures are insufficient or nonexistent. The prioritization process has 3 components: a Delphi process to narrow down a list of potential priority diseases, a multicriteria decision analysis to rank the short list of diseases, and a final Delphi round to arrive at a final list of 10 diseases.

A group of international experts applied this process in January 2017, resulting in a list of 10 priority diseases. The robustness of the list was tested by performing a sensitivity analysis. The new process corrected major shortcomings in the pre–R&D Blueprint approach to disease prioritization and increased confidence in the results.

Multicriteria scores of diseases considered in the 2017 prioritization exercise for the development of the World Health Organization R&D Blueprint to prioritize emerging infectious diseases in need of research and development. A) Disease final ranking using the geometric average of the comparison matrices. B) Disease final ranking using the arithmetic average of the raw data. Error bars correspond to SD, indicating disagreement among experts. C) Disease final ranking using the SMART Vaccines

Multicriteria scores of diseases considered in the 2017 prioritization exercise for the development of the World Health Organization R&D Blueprint to prioritize emerging infectious diseases in need of research and development. A) Disease final ranking using the geometric average of the comparison matrices. B) Disease final ranking using the arithmetic average of the raw data. Error bars correspond to SD, indicating disagreement among experts. C) Disease final ranking using the SMART Vaccines prioritization tool (56). P1, Ebola virus infection; P2, Marburg virus infection; P3, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection; P4, severe acute respiratory syndrome; P5, Lassa virus infection; P6, Nipah virus infection; P7, Rift Valley fever; P8, Zika virus infection; P9, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever; P10, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome; P11, South American hemorrhagic fever; P12, plague; P13, hantavirus infection.

Si Mehand M, Millett P, Al-Shorbaji F, Roth C, Kieny MP, Murgue B. World Health Organization methodology to prioritize emerging infectious diseases in need of research and development. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Sep [date cited]. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2409.171427


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