Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Zika virus’ Category

Brazil: Like malaria or yellow fever, Zika is a continuing threat rather than an urgent pandemic.

NY Times

“….And doctors and researchers are just starting to grasp the medical consequences of Zika. Besides the alarmingly small heads characteristic of microcephaly, many babies have a long list of varied symptoms, leading experts to rename their condition “congenital Zika syndrome.” They can have seizures, breathing problems, trouble swallowing, weakness and stiffness in muscles and joints preventing them from even lifting their heads, clubbed feet, vision and hearing problems, and ferocious irritability.

Some have passed their first birthdays, but have neurological development closer to that of 3-month-old infants, doctors say. Some microcephaly cases appear so dire that experts liken them to a previously rare variant called “fetal brain disruption sequence.” And new issues keep cropping up, including hydrocephalus,…..”

 


A new Zika virus classification scheme

WHO, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have developed a new Zika virus classification scheme. The classification serves to categorize the presence of and potential for vector-borne ZIKV transmission and to inform public health recommendations. Based on the defined criteria and expert review, some countries, territories and subnational areas were reclassified and some were classified for the first time.

Category 1: Area with new introduction or re-introduction with ongoing transmission

  • A laboratory-confirmed autochthonous, vector-borne case of ZIKV infection in a country /territory/subnational area where there is no evidence of virus circulation before 2015, whether it is detected and reported by the country /territory/subnational area where infection occurred, or by another country by diagnosis of a returning traveller; or
  • A laboratory-confirmed autochthonous, vector-borne case of ZIKV infection in a country/territory/subnational area where transmission has been previously interrupted, whether it is detected and reported by the country where infection occurred, or by another country by diagnosis of a returning traveller.

Category 2: Area either with evidence of virus circulation before 2015 or area with ongoing transmission that is no longer in the new or re-introduction phase, but where there is no evidence of interruption

This category takes into account those countries with known historical laboratory evidence of ZIKV circulation prior to 2015, based on the literature as well as all ZIKV surveillance data whether detected and reported by the country where infection occurred or by another country reporting a confirmed case in a returning traveller. Countries in this category may have seasonal variations in transmission. These countries may also experience outbreaks of ZIKV disease.

Laboratory criteria to ascertain the presence of ZIKV in past studies are:

  • Detection of the virus in humans, mosquitoes or animals; and/or
  • Serologic confirmation of ZIKV infection with tests conducted after 1980, and considered as confirmed infection on expert review based on testing for all appropriate cross-reactive flaviviruses and utilization of comprehensive testing methodologies. Because of testing and interpretation limitations with serological data antedating 1980, they were not used for classification purposes.

Category 3: Area with interrupted transmission and with potential for future transmission

The minimum timeline for determining transition to an interrupted state is 12 months after the last confirmed case, and no cases identified in travellers. For countries with a high capacity for diagnostic testing, consistent timely reporting of diagnostic results, a comprehensive arboviral surveillance system and/or a temperate climate or island setting, the interruption of vector-borne transmission is defined as the absence of ZIKV infection 3 months after the last confirmed case. Countries where interruption is epidemiologically likely to have occurred should provide surveillance data to WHO to support the assessment by expert review.

Category 4: Area with established competent vector but no known documented past or current transmission

All countries/territories/subnational areas where the main competent vector (A. aegypti) is established, but which have not had a documented, autochthonous, vector-borne case of ZIKV infection. This category also includes a subgroup of countries/ territories /subnational areas where ZIKV transmission may occur because of a shared border with a neighbouring Category 2 country, by belonging to the same ecological zone and having evidence of dengue virus transmission. In this subgroup, a first laboratory-confirmed, autochthonous vector-borne case of ZIKV infection may not necessarily indicate new introduction (Category 1), but rather previously unknown and undetected transmission (Category 2), and these countries/territories/subnational areas will be reclassified accordingly.


CDC adds 4 nations to Zika travel guidance: Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Maldives, and Solomon Island

Mar 10 CDC travel advisory for Angola

 

Mar 10 CDC travel advisory for Guinea-Bissau

 

Mar 10 CDC travel advisory for Maldives

 

Mar 10 CDC travel advisory for Solomon Islands


WHO: Zika virus, Microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome

WHO

Key updates

  • Countries, territories and subnational areas reporting vector-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) infections for the first time since 1 February:
    • None
  • Countries and territories reporting microcephaly and other central nervous system malformations potentially associated with ZIKV infection for the first time since 1 February:
    • Mexico, Saint Martin
  • Countries and territories reporting Guillain-Barré syndrome cases associated with ZIKV infection for the first time since 1 February:
    • Curaçao, Trinidad and Tobago
  • WHO, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have developed a new Zika virus classification scheme. The classification serves to categorize the presence of and potential for vector-borne ZIKV transmission and to inform public health recommendations. Based on the defined criteria and expert review, some countries, territories and subnational areas were reclassified and some were classified for the first time.
  • In line with WHO’s transition to a sustained programme to address the long-term nature of the disease and its consequences, this is the final WHO Zika situation report. WHO will continue to publish the Zika classification table (Table 1) on a regular basis as well as periodic situation analysis.

 

 


Zika Virus continues in Florida

Florida Department of Health

March 02, 2017

Department of Health Daily Zika Update

Contact:
Communications Office
NewsMedia@flhealth.gov
(850) 245-4111

Southeast sector loop

Tallahassee, Fla. — In an effort to keep Florida residents and visitors safe and aware about the status of the Zika virus, the department issues a Zika virus update when there is a confirmed locally acquired case of Zika.

There are no new travel-related cases to report today. Please visit our website to see the full list of travel-related cases by county and year. The department updates the travel-related case chart online each weekday.

There are three locally acquired cases being reported today. Two are cases that had samples collected in October as part of our ongoing investigation and the department just received confirmatory testing back from CDC. These two cases have been added to the 2016 chart.

The third case reported no symptoms, but screening conducted after blood donation in January showed evidence of a past infection. The department concluded our investigation of this case yesterday. This individual had multiple exposures in Miami-Dade County and likely contracted Zika in 2016. Because the individual was asymptomatic, it is difficult to determine when infection occurred. Since the first positive sample was collected in January, this is considered our first locally reported case of Zika in 2017. Florida still does not have any identified areas with ongoing, active Zika transmission.

The total number of Zika cases reported in Florida for 2016 is 1,384. The total number of Zika cases reported in Florida for 2017 is 18.

 

2016

Infection Type Infection Count
Travel-Related Infections Of Zika 1076
Locally Acquired Infections Of Zika 276
Undetermined 32
.
Pregnant Women With Lab-Evidence Of Zika 264

2017

Infection Type Infection Count
Travel-Related Infections Of Zika 13
Locally Acquired Infections Of Zika 1
Undetermined 0
.
Pregnant Women With Lab-Evidence Of Zika 4

Florida no longer has any identified areas with active Zika transmission, but we will continue to see isolated cases of local transmission so it is important for residents and visitors in Miami-Dade County to remain vigilant about mosquito bite protection.

It is important for people to remember to take proper precautions to prevent mosquito bites while traveling to areas with widespread Zika transmission. The CDC list of these locations is available here.

One case does not mean ongoing active transmission is taking place. DOH conducts a thorough investigation by sampling close contacts and community members around each case to determine if additional people are infected. If DOH finds evidence that active transmission is occurring in an area, the media and the public will be notified.

The department has conducted Zika virus testing for more than 12,700 people statewide. Florida currently has the capacity to test 4,653 people for active Zika virus and 5,152 for Zika antibodies. At Governor Scott’s direction, all county health departments now offer free Zika risk assessment and testing to pregnant women.

The CDC advises pregnant women should consider postponing travel to Miami-Dade County. If you are pregnant and must travel or if you live or work in Miami-Dade County, protect yourself from mosquito bites by wearing insect repellent, long clothing and limiting your time outdoors.

According to CDC guidance, providers should test all pregnant women who lived in, traveled to or whose partner traveled to Miami-Dade County after Aug. 1, 2016. Pregnant women in Miami-Dade County can contact their medical provider or their local county health department to be tested and receive a Zika prevention kit. Additionally, the department is working closely with the Healthy Start Coalition of Miami-Dade County to identify pregnant women in Miami-Dade County to ensure they have access to resources and information to protect themselves. CDC recommends that a pregnant woman with a history of Zika virus and her provider should consider additional ultrasounds.

Pregnant women can contact their local county health department for Zika risk assessment and testing hours and information. A Zika risk assessment will be conducted by county health department staff and blood and/or urine samples may be collected and sent to labs for testing. It may take one to two weeks to receive results.

Florida has been monitoring pregnant women with evidence of Zika regardless of symptoms. The total number of pregnant women who have been or are being monitored is 264.

On Feb. 12, Governor Scott directed the State Surgeon General to activate a Zika Virus Information Hotline for current Florida residents and visitors, as well as anyone planning on traveling to Florida in the near future. The number for the Zika Virus Information Hotline is 1-855-622-6735.

The department urges Floridians to drain standing water weekly, no matter how seemingly small. A couple drops of water in a bottle cap can be a breeding location for mosquitoes. Residents and visitors also need to use repellents when enjoying the Florida outdoors.

For more information on DOH action and federal guidance, please click here.

For resources and information on Zika virus, click here.

About the Florida Department of Health

The department, nationally accredited by the Public Health Accreditation Board, works to protect, promote and improve the health of all people in Florida through integrated state, county and community efforts.

Follow us on Twitter at @HealthyFla and on Facebook. For more information about the Florida Department of Health please visit www.FloridaHealth.gov.


Brazil’s Congenital Zika Epidemic: Evidence from 87 Confirmed Cases

Clinical Infectious Diseases

“…..A prospective case series of 87 infants with laboratory-confirmed congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) at the epicenter of the Brazilian Zika epidemic in Pernambuco state is presented. Mothers were interviewed for symptoms of possible Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal ultrasounds were obtained. Infant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested for ZIKV specific antibodies and sera were screened for other congenital infections. Neuroimaging and ophthalmologic evaluations were also performed. Sixty six mothers (76%) reported symptoms of ZIKV infection during gestation. Fetal ultrasounds were available from 90% of the mothers and all demonstrated brain structural abnormalities. All the CSF samples tested positive for ZIKV IgM. The majority of infants (89%) were term, the mean birth weight was 2577±260g and the mean head circumference was 28.1±1.8 cm. Severe microcephaly, defined as head circumference below 3 SD for sex and gestational age, was found in 72 (82%) infants. All infants had an abnormal neurological exam and 18 (20.7%) had arthrogryposis. The main abnormalities detected in CT scans were calcifications (99%), followed by ventricular enlargement (94%), cortical hypogyration (81%), and less commonly, cerebellar hypoplasia (52%). Unilateral diaphragm paralysis was identified in three infants. Maternal young age, term infant, small for gestational age and the presence of ophthalmologic abnormalities were significantly associated with a smaller head circumference Z score. Our findings, based on laboratory-confirmed ZIKV infection, add valuable evidence for the understanding of CZS.”


AGS-v: An investigational vaccine that triggers an immune response to mosquito saliva rather than to a specific virus or parasite carried by mosquitoes

NIAID

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has launched a Phase 1 clinical trial to test an investigational vaccine intended to provide broad protection against a range of mosquito-transmitted diseases, such as Zika, malaria, West Nile fever and dengue fever, and to hinder the ability of mosquitoes to transmit such infections. The study, which is being conducted at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, will examine the experimental vaccine’s safety and ability to generate an immune response.

Mosquito vaccine trial partipant recieves injection

The investigational vaccine, called AGS-v, was developed by the London-based pharmaceutical company SEEK, which has since formed a joint venture with hVIVO in London. The consulting group Halloran has provided regulatory advice to both companies.

Unlike other vaccines targeting specific mosquito-borne diseases, the AGS-v candidate is designed to trigger an immune response to mosquito saliva rather than to a specific virus or parasite carried by mosquitoes. The test vaccine contains four synthetic proteins from mosquito salivary glands. The proteins are designed to induce antibodies in a vaccinated individual and to cause a modified allergic response that can prevent infection when a person is bitten by a disease-carrying mosquito.

“Mosquitoes cause more human disease and death than any other animal,” said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. “A single vaccine capable of protecting against the scourge of mosquito-borne diseases is a novel concept that, if proven successful, would be a monumental public health advance.”

Led by Matthew J. Memoli, M.D., director of the Clinical Studies Unit in NIAID’s Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, the clinical trial is expected to enroll up to 60 healthy adults ages 18 to 50 years. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive one of three vaccine regimens. The first group will receive two injections of the AGS-v vaccine, 21 days apart. The second group will receive two injections of AGS-v combined with an adjuvant, 21 days apart. The adjuvant is an oil and water mixture commonly added to vaccines to enhance immune responses. The third group will receive two placebo injections of sterile water 21 days apart. Neither the study investigators nor the participants will know who is assigned to each group.

Participants will be asked to return to the clinic twice between vaccinations and twice after the second vaccination to undergo a physical exam and to provide blood samples. Study investigators will examine the blood samples to measure levels of antibodies triggered by vaccination.

Each participant also will return to the Clinical Center approximately 21 days after completing the vaccination schedule to undergo a controlled exposure to biting mosquitoes. The mosquitoes will not be carrying viruses or parasites, so the participants are not at risk of becoming infected with a mosquito-borne disease. Five to 10 female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from the insectary in NIAID’s Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research will be put in a feeding device that will be placed on each participant’s arm for 20 minutes. The mosquitoes will bite the participants’ arms through the netting on the feeding devices.

Afterward, investigators will take blood samples from each participant at various time points to see if participants experience a modified response to the mosquito bites as a result of AGS-v vaccination.

Investigators also will examine the mosquitoes after the feeding to assess any changes to their life cycle. Scientists suspect that the mosquitoes who take a blood meal from ASG-v-vaccinated participants may have altered behavior that could lead to early death or a reduced ability to reproduce. This would indicate that the experimental vaccine could also hinder disease transmission by controlling the mosquito population.

All participants will be asked to return to the clinic for follow-up visits every 60 days for five months following the mosquito feeding. A final clinic visit to assess long-term safety will take place approximately 10 months after the mosquito feeding. Throughout the trial, an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board will review study data to evaluate participant safety and the overall conduct of the study. A medical monitor from NIAID’s Office of Clinical Research Policy and Regulatory Operations will also perform routine safety assessments.

The study is expected to be completed by summer 2018. For more information about the trial, see ClinicalTrials.gov using the trial identifier NCT03055000 (link is external).


Outcomes of Pregnancies with Laboratory Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection in the United States

CDC

 

Outcomes for Completed Pregnancies in the United States and District of Columbia, 2016-2017

Completed pregnancies with or without birth defects:  1,047

Includes aggregated data reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry*

Liveborn infants with birth defects*:  43

Pregnancy losses with birth defects**:  5

*As of February 7, 2017

What these numbers show

  • The number of completed pregnancies with or without birth defects include those that ended in a live birth, miscarriage, stillbirth, or termination.
  • The number of liveborn infants and pregnancy losses with birth defects include those among completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection that have been reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry.
  • These numbers rely on reporting to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry and may increase or decrease as new cases are added or information on existing cases is clarified. For example, CDC cannot report the number of completed pregnancies with or without poor pregnancy outcomes that have not yet been reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry.
  • The number of liveborn infants and pregnancy losses with birth defects are combined for the 50 US states, and the District of Columbia. CDC is not reporting individual state, tribal, territorial or jurisdictional level data to protect the privacy of the women and children affected by Zika. CDC is using a consistent case inclusion criteria to monitor brain abnormalities and other adverse pregnancy outcomes potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy in the US states and territories. Puerto Rico is not using the same inclusion criteria; CDC is not reporting numbers for adverse pregnancy outcomes in the territories at this time.
  • Birth defects reported include those that have been detected in infants infected with Zika before, during, or shortly after birth, including microcephaly, calcium deposits in the brain indicating possible brain damage, excess fluid in the brain cavities and surrounding the brain, absent or poorly formed brain structures, abnormal eye development, or other problems resulting from damage to brain that affects nerves, muscles and bones, such as clubfoot or inflexible joints, and confirmed hearing loss.

What these new numbers do not show

  • These numbers are not real time estimates. They reflect the outcomes of pregnancies with any laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry as of 12 noon Tuesday the week prior. Additionally, there may be delays in reporting of pregnancy outcomes from the jurisdictions.
  • Although these outcomes occurred in pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection, we do not know whether they were caused by Zika virus infection or other factors.

Where do these numbers come from?

  • These data reflect pregnancies reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry(https://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/registry.html). CDC, in collaboration with state, local, tribal and territorial health departments, established this system for comprehensive monitoring of pregnancy and infant outcomes following Zika virus infection.
  • The data collected through this system will be used to update recommendations for clinical care, to plan for services and support for pregnant women and families affected by Zika virus, and to improve prevention of Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

Mosquito-disseminated pyriproxyfen (PPF), a potent juvenile-killing insecticide, has potential to block mosquito-borne virus transmission citywide

PLOS

Abad-Franch F, Zamora-Perea E, Luz SLB (2017) Mosquito-Disseminated Insecticide for Citywide Vector Control and Its Potential to Block Arbovirus Epidemics: Entomological Observations and Modeling Results from Amazonian Brazil. PLoS Med 14(1): e1002213. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002213

Aedes-aegypti_1

 

 


WHO: Zika timeline, 2013-2016

WHO


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