Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Rabies’ Category

Asia: The dog meat industry & rabies

Express

‘……The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States said: “There are reports that dog-meat markets have a higher rate of rabies than the general dog population, as people often sell dogs to the markets when they act sick; some of these sick dogs have rabies.

“Furthermore, there are at least three published reports of humans acquiring rabies from activities associated with the dog meat market, emphasizing that the risk is very real.”…….’

2018 World Rabies Day Banner: Share the Message, Save a Life!


The Philippines: 8 people died of dog rabies in Western Visayas from January until August, 2018 and 4 of the deaths recorded were children below 15 years of age.

Philippine News Agency

 

 


9/28/18: World Rabies day


Yangon General Hospital, Myanmar: Eighteen people died from rabies in the first eight months of this year

Myanmar Times

  • That number could increase if other hospitals across the country are included in the total.
  • Last year, the hospital treated and vaccinated 16,274 people for dog bites. Of those patients, 32 died from rabies.

Diagram of the rabies virion

 


WHO, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) are joining forces to support countries as they seek to accelerate their actions towards the elimination of dog-mediated rabies by 2030.

LANCET

“……The Global Strategic Plan set three objectives for affected countries, development partners, and key stakeholders: (1) to effectively use vaccines, medicines, tools, and technologies that will stop dog rabies transmission and reduce the risk of human rabies deaths; (2) to generate evidence-based guidance and high-quality data to measure impact and inform policy decisions; and (3) to harness multistakeholder engagement to sustain commitment and resources...…”

basket of puppies


PHILIPPINES: Twelve residents who ate dog meat are under observation for rabies

GMA News

 

“….The residents….ate the dog meat which was cooked by the owner of the dog, who also slaughtered the animal himself…..

The owner reportedly did this after the dog bit him.

After 15 days, the owner passed away……”


Rabies Deaths Among Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women — Vietnam

CDC MMWR

Nguyen HT, Tran CH, Dang AD, et al. Rabies Vaccine Hesitancy and Deaths Among Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women — Vietnam, 2015–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:250–252. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6708a4.

“…..Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. MoH found that, during 2015–2016, among 169 cases reported in Vietnam, two probable cases of rabies were reported in breastfeeding mothers and four in pregnant women, all of whom had been bitten by dogs. All six patients died. Three of the four pregnant women had cesarean deliveries. One of the three newborns died from complications believed to be unrelated to rabies; the fourth pregnant woman contracted rabies too early in pregnancy for the fetus to be viable. Two of the patients sought care from a medical provider or traditional healer; however, none sought PEP after being bitten. In each case, families reported the patient’s fear of risk to the fetus or breastfed child as the primary barrier to receiving PEP. These findings highlight the need for public health messaging about the safety and effectiveness of PEP in preventing rabies among all persons with exposures, including pregnant and breastfeeding women.……”

Selected characteristics, animal exposure, signs and symptoms, and treatment for six fatal rabies cases in pregnant and breastfeeding women — Vietnam 2015–2016Return to your place in the text
Characteristic No.
Education
Junior high school 5
Senior high school 1
Dog bite 6
Status of dog at time of patient exposure
Normal* 2
Stray 3
Ill 1
Dog rabies vaccination status
Yes 0
No 2
Unknown 4
Bite location
Foot or leg 5
Hand or arm 1
Rabies signs and symptoms
Aerophobia (sensitivity to movement of air) 6
Anorexia 3
Anxiety 2
Fever 4
Headache 5
Hydrophobia 4
Insomnia 3
Malaise or fatigue 5
Muscle pain or spams 3
Paresthesia or localized pain 2
Wound treatment
None 2
At home 2
Medical center 1
Traditional healer 1
Received any postexposure prophylaxis 0

* Family reported that the dog appeared normal at the time of exposure. No information was available regarding the status of the dog after 10 days.
Patients could have multiple symptoms.


Stray dog situation in Thailand out of control & thus, the risk of rabies grows

Samui

“…..According to the last nationwide survey in 2014 there are around eight and a half million dogs in Thailand. Seven hundred thousand of those are considered to be strays with a round half of that number being females who produce up to ten puppies a year. This figure means that the stray canine population could increase by up to 3.4 million dogs a year.

Stray dogs as well as being unclean and causing noise pollution can also spread diseases such as rabies. 90% of the animals found with rabies in Thailand are dogs and 60% of rabid dogs are strays…..”

CDC:  This patient presented with early, though progressive symptoms due to what was confirmed as rabies virus.


Latest research: Rabies in bats and carnivores, and implications for spillover to humans

Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores, and implications for spillover to humans

 Published online: October 31, 2017

 Lineke Begeman, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Stefan Finke, Conrad M Freuling, Marion Koopmans, Thomas Müller, Tom J H Ruigrok, Thijs Kuiken

 The Lancet Infectious Diseases

 

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(17)30574-1/fulltext

 

 

 


CDC recommendations to healthcare providers treating patients in Puerto Rico and USVI, as well as those treating patients in the continental US who recently traveled in hurricane-affected areas during the period of September 2017 – March 2018.

CDC

Advice for Providers Treating Patients in or Recently Returned from Hurricane-Affected Areas, Including Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands

Distributed via the CDC Health Alert Network
October 24, 2017, 1330 ET (1:30 PM ET)
CDCHAN-00408

Summary
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is working with federal, state, territorial, and local agencies and global health partners in response to recent hurricanes. CDC is aware of media reports and anecdotal accounts of various infectious diseases in hurricane-affected areas, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Because of compromised drinking water and decreased access to safe water, food, and shelter, the conditions for outbreaks of infectious diseases exist.

The purpose of this HAN advisory is to remind clinicians assessing patients currently in or recently returned from hurricane-affected areas to be vigilant in looking for certain infectious diseases, including leptospirosis, dengue, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, vibriosis, and influenza. Additionally, this Advisory provides guidance to state and territorial health departments on enhanced disease reporting.

 

Background
Hurricanes Irma and Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico and USVI in September 2017, causing widespread flooding and devastation. Natural hazards associated with the storms continue to affect many areas. Infectious disease outbreaks of diarrheal and respiratory illnesses can occur when access to safe water and sewage systems are disrupted and personal hygiene is difficult to maintain. Additionally, vector borne diseases can occur due to increased mosquito breeding in standing water; both Puerto Rico and USVI are at risk for outbreaks of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya.

Health care providers and public health practitioners should be aware that post-hurricane environmental conditions may pose an increased risk for the spread of infectious diseases among patients in or recently returned from hurricane-affected areas; including leptospirosis, dengue, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, vibriosis, and influenza. The period of heightened risk may last through March 2018, based on current predictions of full restoration of power and safe water systems in Puerto Rico and USVI.

In addition, providers in health care facilities that have experienced water damage or contaminated water systems should be aware of the potential for increased risk of infections in those facilities due to invasive fungi, nontuberculous Mycobacterium species, Legionella species, and other Gram-negative bacteria associated with water (e.g., Pseudomonas), especially among critically ill or immunocompromised patients.

Cholera has not occurred in Puerto Rico or USVI in many decades and is not expected to occur post-hurricane.

 

Recommendations

These recommendations apply to healthcare providers treating patients in Puerto Rico and USVI, as well as those treating patients in the continental US who recently traveled in hurricane-affected areas (e.g., within the past 4 weeks), during the period of September 2017 – March 2018.

  • Health care providers and public health practitioners in hurricane-affected areas should look for community and healthcare-associated infectious diseases.
  • Health care providers in the continental US are encouraged to ask patients about recent travel (e.g., within the past 4 weeks) to hurricane-affected areas.
  • All healthcare providers should consider less common infectious disease etiologies in patients presenting with evidence of acute respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, renal or hepatic failure, wound infection, or other febrile illness. Some particularly important infectious diseases to consider include leptospirosis, dengue, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, vibriosis, and influenza.
  • In the context of limited laboratory resources in hurricane-affected areas, health care providers should contact their territorial or state health department if they need assistance with ordering specific diagnostic tests.
  • For certain conditions, such as leptospirosis, empiric therapy should be considered pending results of diagnostic tests— treatment for leptospirosis is most effective when initiated early in the disease process. Providers can contact their territorial or state health department or CDC for consultation.
  • Local health care providers are strongly encouraged to report patients for whom there is a high level of suspicion for leptospirosis, dengue, hepatitis A, typhoid, and vibriosis to their local health authorities, while awaiting laboratory confirmation.
  • Confirmed cases of leptospirosis, dengue, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and vibriosis should be immediately reported to the territorial or state health department to facilitate public health investigation and, as appropriate, mitigate the risk of local transmission. While some of these conditions are not listed as reportable conditions in all states, they are conditions of public health importance and should be reported.

 

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