Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Global Health’ Category

People in sub-Saharan African can expect to live for 11 years longer than the generation that went before them.

The Guardian

  • Factors including recovery from HIV epidemics, reductions in child mortality, improved nutrition and access to drinking water have driven life expectancy from 49.7 years in 1990 to 60.7 years in 2017.
  • The number of years children typically spend in school has also increased across the region, growing 14% over the past decade.

Young man exchanging syringes on the street in Maldives

 


A recent World Bank report concluded, rising temperatures in SE Asia could diminish the living standards of 800 million people.

NYT

2017 Was the Second Hottest Year on Record

“……a recent analysis of climate trends in several of South Asia’s biggest cities found that if current warming trends continued, by the end of the century, wet bulb temperatures — a measure of heat and humidity that can indicate the point when the body can no longer cool itself — would be so high that people directly exposed for six hours or more would not survive……..”


Attacks on Medical Education across the Globe

Attacks on Medical Education : Document

“…..The aim of this report is to explore an impact of violence on medical education, with its specific components, such as education facilities, teaching hospitals, libraries, professors, medical students and all other directly related components…..”

“….Venezuealan Case Studies:

Threats / intimidation of medical personnel of the Central Hospital of San Cristóbal during protests: During the month of April and May several threats were reported against the personnel of the Central Hospital of San Cristóbal, Táchira state, because the National Guards forbade treating the wounded during social protests, intimidating some doctors who attended these wounded youth, despite the multiple protests that took place in the hospital, this intimidation did not stop.

Tear gas pumps near the Del Valle maternal and child hospital on 04/20/2017: The use of tear gas bombs by the Bolivarian National Police and the Bolivarian National Guard in Longaray and the Intercomunal Avenue of El Valle affected the patients of El Valle Children’s Maternity Hospital. Gases seeped into hospital facilities affecting workers, mothers and newborns17.

Detention of the professor of medical school of the Universidad Central de Venezuela, MD Óscar Noya, on 04/20/2017: Oscar Noya is a doctor and professor at the Central University of Venezuela (UCV). He works continuously for the population that lives in the upper Orinoco. Through the Twitter social network it was possible to know that in the afternoon of Thursday, April 20, Dr. Oscar Noya was arrested, when participated in the protest. Moya was helping people affected by tear gas in Santa Monica, Caracas…..”


Global motorcyclists: A unique methodology to identify traffic hotspots around the world and then try to find answers to extinguish them

DUKE

“…..Crowdsourcing. They would survey motorcyclists about road traffic “hotspots”—areas of high-density crash locations—in the region. They hypothesized that the people who spend their days traversing across town would have valuable insights that could help inform future road safety interventions. It turns out they were right.  Staton, Vissoci, Østbye and Luciano Andrade, a post-doctoral researcher working with Staton, initially tested this method in Kigali, Rwanda, and Galle, Sri Lanka, in collaboration with Stephen Rulisa in Rwanda and Vijitha Da Silva in Sri Lanka. They asked moto drivers in Rwanda and tuk-tuk (three-wheel) drivers in Sri Lanka to identify dangerous locations in the region and label the severity of danger of each location. Then, the researchers compared police data to the information the drivers provided.

The study not only showed that data from these “high road utilizers” aligned well with police data, but also identified potential additional hotspots. The research team also found that this crowdsourcing approach is less costly than collecting police data and is easily reproducible, adaptable and interpretable. They were able to replicate the study in Moshi, Tanzania, a year later in collaboration with KCMC researcher Mark Mvungi and got similar results…..

The next step….is to formulate targeted, cost-effective interventions to minimize the risk in these traffic hotspots. These interventions might include measures such as adding speed bumps; improving road pavement conditions, visibility and signage; and promoting helmet use……”


Is it possible? 2 doses a year of an antibiotic can sharply cut death rates among infants in poor countries.

NY Times

“…..In the study — known as the Mordor trial and published in the New England Journal of Medicine — 190,238 children under age 5 in 1,500 villages in Malawi, Niger and Tanzania were given one dose of azithromycin or a placebo every six months for two years.

Overall, there were 14 percent fewer deaths among children getting the antibiotic; the reduction was strongest in Niger, where infant mortality is highest.

The protection appeared to be greatest for infants aged 1 month to 5 months; the antibiotic prevented one in four deaths in this group…..”


Venezuelan health crisis: At hospitals in border cities like Cucuta, patients are packed side by side on stretchers that spill into hallways, not much unlike the deplorable conditions they fled back home and authorities project that Venezuelan admissions to Colombian hospitals could double in 2018 and say the nation’s already overstretched public health system is unprepared to handle the sudden swell.

ABC


Nursing Now aims to improve health globally by raising the profile and status of nurses worldwide – influencing policymakers and supporting nurses themselves to lead, learn and build a global movement.

NursingNow

Uganda, where the Government has joined with nursing, health and academic organisations to set out a Nursing Now road map for developing nursing and midwifery. This work is laying the groundwork for Nursing Now Africa.

Singapore, where the Government is running a campaign to promote nursing as an exciting career. They are creating new opportunities for nurses, celebrating their achievements and engaging nurses at the forefront of developing community services.

Narayana Health in India, where the founder Dr Devi Shetty and the Board have recognised the enhanced role that nurses can play and established a development programme for nurses. They are using nurses to lead the way in extending their services into Africa.

 

Rwanda, where a private organisation is working with the government to support nurse entrepreneurs providing vital services in the most rural areas.

Albert Einstein Hospital in São Paolo, Brazil, where nurses are engaging the many men who do not attend the basic health units for consultations. They are reaching out by going to bars to talk to people about how they can take better care of their health.

Jamaica, where the Government is working with partners to tackle violence against women and children as the first programme of Nursing Now Jamaica.

Community Aging in Place, Advancing Better Living for Elders (CAPABLE) in the USA, which is providing a multi-disciplinary service to support elderly people to live in their own homes.


Vitamin A deficiency threatens the vision and lives of millions of children in sub-Saharan Africa, but biofortified staple crops could provide a nutritional safety net.

Hopkins/Bloomberg Public Health

“….Yet while supplements work wonders—UNICEF estimates that if every child who needed supplements received them, as many as 1 million lives could be saved each year—even massive distribution campaigns can’t reach everyone who requires them. And industrially fortifying foods does not always work in developing countries, where it can be difficult to identify a commonly eaten food that can be centrally—and reliably—processed. Several Central American countries, for example, have successfully reduced vitamin A deficiency by fortifying sugar with vitamin A; but….attempts to do so in Zambia failed due to flawed fortification processes.….

Biofortification  would allow vulnerable populations to grow and eat their own nutritionally enhanced crops, sidestepping many of the obstacles to supplementation and industrial fortification.

 


Chile: During the long fight over the food law, Senator Girardi, 56, publicly assailed big food companies as “21st century pedophiles”

NY Times

“….Until the late 1980s, malnutrition was widespread among poor Chileans, especially children. Today, three-quarters of adults are overweight or obese, according to the country’s health ministry. Officials have been particularly alarmed by childhood obesity rates that are among the world’s highest, with over half of 6-year-old children overweight or obese.

In 2016, the medical costs of obesity reached $800 million, or 2.4 percent of all health care spending, a figure that analysts say will reach nearly 4 percent in 2030…..”


WHO: Global Violence and Injury

WHO

Violence

Globally, some 470 000 homicides occur each year and millions of people suffer violence-related injuries. Beyond death and injury, exposure to violence can increase the risk of smoking, alcohol and drug abuse; mental illness and suicidality; chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes and cancer; infectious diseases such as HIV, and social problems such as crime and further violence.

Road traffic injuries

Mixed traffic in New Delhi, India

Over 3 400 people die on the world’s roads every day and tens of millions of people are injured or disabled every year. Children, pedestrians, cyclists and older people are among the most vulnerable of road users.

 

Drowning

Drowning is a leading killer. The latest WHO Global Health Estimates indicate that almost 360 000 people lost their lives to drowning in 2015. Nearly 60% of these deaths occur among those aged under 30 years, and drowning is the third leading cause of death worldwide for children aged 5-14 years. Over 90% of drowning deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.

 

Burns

A burn is an injury to the skin or other organic tissue primarily caused by heat but can also be due to radiation, radioactivity, electricity, friction or contact with chemicals. Skin injuries due to ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals, as well as respiratory damage resulting from smoke inhalation, are also considered to be burns.

Globally, burns are a serious public health problem. An estimated 180 000 deaths occur each year from fires alone, with more deaths from scalds, electrical burns, and other forms of burns, for which global data are not available.

According to the 2015 Global Health Estimates, 95% of fatal fire-related burns occur in low- and middle-income countries. In addition to those who die, millions more are left with lifelong disabilities and disfigurements, often with resulting stigma and rejection.

The suffering caused by burns is even more tragic as burns are so eminently preventable.

 

Falls

A fall is an event which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or floor or other lower level. Within the WHO database fall-related deaths and non-fatal injuries exclude those due to assault and intentional self-harm. Falls from animals, burning buildings and transport vehicles, and falls into fire, water and machinery are also excluded.

Globally, an estimated 391 000 people died due to falls in 2002, making it the 2nd leading cause of unintentional injury death globally after road traffic injuries. A quarter of all fatal falls occurred in the high-income countries. Europe and the Western Pacific region combined account for nearly 60 % of the total number of fall-related deaths worldwide

Males in the low- and middle-income countries of Europe have by far the highest fall-related mortality rates worldwide.

In all regions of the world, adults over the age of 70 years, particularly females, have significantly higher fall-related mortality rates than younger people. However, children account for the largest morbidity- almost 50% of the total number of DALYs lost globally to falls occur in children under 15 years of age.


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