Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Women issues’ Category

“Bride Kidnapping”: There are nearly 1.5 million child brides in Muslim-majority Indonesia


“…….Globally 12 million girls become child brides each year, according to campaign group Girls Not Brides. They face greater risks of exploitation, sexual violence, domestic abuse and death in childbirth……”

Pakistan: Condoms? Huh? Embarassed?

Jakarta Post


“…..Birth control shots are the most popular form of contraception, while condoms, used by only 3.23 percent, stand in third place from the bottom after tubal ligation and vasectomy….The BKKBN’s undersecretary for population control, Wendy Hartanto, said the low condom usage was caused by the cultural barriers, as many men think contraception is the responsibility of women……”


Identifying the root causes of poorly maintained WASH infrastructure, and understanding the deeply embedded socio-cultural values around menstrual hygiene management that need to be addressed in order to provide truly supportive school environments for menstruating girls.

Journal of Adolescence

Volume 76, October 2019, Pages 152-161
Journal of Adolescence

“How can we leave the traditions of our Baab Daada” socio-cultural structures and values driving menstrual hygiene management challenges in schools in Pakistan


“……Three key themes emerged from our data: (1) a poorly maintained, girls-unfriendly School WASH infrastructure was a result of gender-insensitive design, a cultural devaluation of toilet cleaners and inadequate governing practices; (2) the design of WASH facilities did not align with traditionally-determined modes of disposal of rag-pads, the most common used absorbents; (3) traditional menstrual management practices situate girls in an ‘alternate space’ characterised by withdrawal from many daily routines. These three socio-culturally determined practices interacted in a complex manner, often leading to interrupted class engagement and attendance……”

In celebration of World Breastfeeding Week


“……The benefits of breastfeeding don’t just extend to babies; studies found it can even protect women from breast and ovarian cancer later in life, reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes and contribute to healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies. In fact, scaling up breastfeeding could prevent over 800,000 child deaths and 20,000 deaths among women each year...…”

World Breastfeeding Week 2019


The cognitive, health and economic benefits of breastfeeding are well established and recognized, yet only 37 percent of children under 6-months-old in low- and middle-income countries are exclusively breastfed and about 50 percent of newborns initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth.

Breastfeeding has one of the highest returns on investment of any development activity: every dollar invested in breastfeeding interventions yields an estimated $35 in economic gains. Breastfeeding duration is also associated with higher IQ and income as well as greater educational attainment. Inversely, suboptimal breastfeeding is associated with economic losses of about $302 billion each year, or 0.49 percent of world gross national income. With support to scale up global breastfeeding practices, the deaths of 823,000 children under 5-years-old and 20,000 women could be prevented, annually.

Is there an “epidemic” of sexual harassment and violence against women in Indonesia?


“…….Data from the national commission in 2018 showed the highest number of cases of violence against women occurred within households, with a rising trend of marital rape, in part, the commission believes, because more women are coming forward.

Separately, results from a survey released by a coalition of women’s rights groups on Wednesday showed that Indonesian women also face frequent sexual harassment in public spaces, including in the street and on public transport, and at the workplace and educational institutes.

The survey, which included 62,000 respondents from across 34 provinces, revealed that more than 60% of women in Indonesia had experienced verbal sexual harassment, and more than half before the age of 16……”


Mozambique’s mothers after 2 typhoons


“….More than 1.8 million people have struggled to recover from the damaging cyclones, but Mozambique’s mothers might be the most in need of help.

Mothers who need to have their babies weighed, immunised or measured, have to consult with doctors outdoors.

A temporary unit for gynaecological examinations and assisted procedures has been set up by the medical charity, Doctors Without Borders, known by its French initials MSF, but a better-equipped structure is urgently needed at this rural hospital where on average 120 women give birth each month…..

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is critical for lactating mothers to have energy and protein-rich foods during emergencies to ensure a baby is breastfed well.

“Breastfeeding is the best protection against diseases. Breastfed babies face much less risk of illness than babies who are not breastfed and, if they are sick, the duration of their illness is usually less,” Dr Nellia Mutisse, a specialist in child health with WHO Mozambique……”


Menstrual Sheds in Nepal


“…..Every year in Nepal, women die while sleeping in a shed outside their home because they are on their period. The cause of death is often smoke inhalation from lighting a fire to stay warm.

The practice, called chaupadi….”

Maternal and neonatal mortality is high in Africa. Why?


Volume 7, ISSUE 4,
Pe513-e522, April 01, 2019
Maternal and neonatal outcomes after caesarean delivery in the African Surgical Outcomes Study: a 7-day prospective observational cohort study


Between February, 2016, and May, 2016, 3792 patients were recruited from hospitals across Africa. 3685 were included in the postoperative complications analysis (107 missing data) and 3684 were included in the maternal mortality analysis (108 missing data). These hospitals had a combined number of specialist surgeons, obstetricians, and anaesthetists totalling 0·7 per 100 000 population (IQR 0·2–2·0). Maternal mortality was 20 (0·5%) of 3684 patients (95% CI 0·3–0·8). Complications occurred in 633 (17·4%) of 3636 mothers (16·2–18·6), which were predominantly severe intraoperative and postoperative bleeding (136 [3·8%] of 3612 mothers). Maternal mortality was independently associated with a preoperative presentation of placenta praevia, placental abruption, ruptured uterus, antepartum haemorrhage (odds ratio 4·47 [95% CI 1·46–13·65]), and perioperative severe obstetric haemorrhage (5·87 [1·99–17·34]) or anaesthesia complications (11·47 (1·20–109·20]). Neonatal mortality was 153 (4·4%) of 3506 infants (95% CI 3·7–5·0)……..”

Pakistan has the highest infant mortality rate in the world


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