Global & Disaster Medicine

Identifying the root causes of poorly maintained WASH infrastructure, and understanding the deeply embedded socio-cultural values around menstrual hygiene management that need to be addressed in order to provide truly supportive school environments for menstruating girls.

Journal of Adolescence

Volume 76, October 2019, Pages 152-161
Journal of Adolescence

“How can we leave the traditions of our Baab Daada” socio-cultural structures and values driving menstrual hygiene management challenges in schools in Pakistan


“……Three key themes emerged from our data: (1) a poorly maintained, girls-unfriendly School WASH infrastructure was a result of gender-insensitive design, a cultural devaluation of toilet cleaners and inadequate governing practices; (2) the design of WASH facilities did not align with traditionally-determined modes of disposal of rag-pads, the most common used absorbents; (3) traditional menstrual management practices situate girls in an ‘alternate space’ characterised by withdrawal from many daily routines. These three socio-culturally determined practices interacted in a complex manner, often leading to interrupted class engagement and attendance……”

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