Global & Disaster Medicine

Human H9N2 infections have been reported only in Hong Kong, China, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. Now it’s in India!

Potdar V, Hinge D, Satav A, Simões EF, Yadav PD, Chadha MS. Laboratory-confirmed avian influenza A(H9N2) virus infection, India, 2019. Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Dec [date cited].


“A 17-month-old boy in India with severe acute respiratory infection was laboratory confirmed to have avian influenza A(H9N2) virus infection. Complete genome analysis of the strain indicated a mixed lineage of G1 and H732. The strain also was found to be susceptible to adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors.”

Phylogenetic tree of hemagglutinin gene (A) and neuraminidase gene (B) gene of influenza virus A/India/TCM 2581/2019(H9N2) from India (black circle) and reference strains. The numbers above the branches are the bootstrap probabilities (%) for each branch, determined by using the MEGA 7.0 ( Human cases from other countries are in bold. Scale bars indicate substitutions per site.

The case:  “……The child, a resident of Melghat, had fever, cough, breathlessness, and difficulty feeding for 2 days since illness onset on January 31, 2019. His high intermittent grade fever had no diurnal variation and no association with rash or mucocutaneous lesions. Examination revealed a conscious, restless child with a respiratory rate of 48 breaths/min and lower chest wall in-drawing with intermittent absence of breathing for >20 seconds. He was fully immunized for his age, with bacillus Calmette–Guérin, diphtheria, hepatitis B, poliovirus, and measles vaccines. Both length and weight for age were less than −3 SD. History of travel with his parents to a local religious gathering 1 week before symptom onset was elicited. The father had similar symptoms on return from the gathering but could not undergo serologic testing because of his migrant work. No history of poultry exposure was elicited. The child received an antibacterial drug and antipyretics and recovered uneventfully.….”

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