Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Documents’ Category

The World Resources Institute: 33 countries projected to face extremely high water stress (i.e. shortage of fresh water) in 2040.

NY Times

The Role of Water Stress in Instability and Conflict : Document

 

 


Study some ferrets inoculated intranasally with 1918 H1N1 virus and see what happens…..

1918 Pandemic research article

1918 H1N1 influenza virus replicates and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in extra-respiratory tissues of ferrets

Emmie de Wit
Laboratory of Virology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT, United States of America
Emmie de Wit: 903 South 4th Street, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA; phone: +1-406-375-7490; fax: +1-406-375-9620; Emmie.deWit@nih.gov
“…..Evidence for active virus replication, as indicated by the detection of nucleoprotein by immunohistochemistry, was observed in the respiratory tract, peripheral and central nervous system, and liver. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were upregulated in respiratory tissues, olfactory bulb, spinal cord, liver, heart and pancreas…..”
Corresponding authors: Debby van Riel: P.O. Box 2040, Ee1716, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands; phone +31 10 704 4069; fax: +31 10 704 4760; d.vanriel@erasmusmc.nl
The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy003, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy003

What is the PHEMCE?

The PHEMCE is an interagency coordinating body led by the HHS Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, comprising the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, and interagency partners at the Departments of Defense, Veterans Affairs, Homeland Security, and Agriculture. It coordinates the development, acquisition, stockpiling, and recommendations for use of medical products that we need to effectively respond to a variety of high consequence public health emergencies, whether naturally occurring or intentional.

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The 2017-2018 Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise (PHEMCE) Strategy and Implementation Plan (SIP) describes the priorities that the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), in collaboration with its interagency partners, will implement over the next five years. This strategy updates the 2016 PHEMCE SIP and fulfills the annual requirement established by Section 2811(d) of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act, as amended by the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act (PAHPRA). The annual PHEMCE SIP provides the blueprint the Enterprise will use to enhance national health security through the procurement and effective use of medical countermeasures (MCM). Starting with this iteration of the SIP, the PHEMCE is retitling its SIP to reflect a more forward-focused strategic document by referring to the year the PHEMCE developed it as well as the following year. For example, the PHEMCE developed this SIP in 2017; therefore, it is the 2017-2018 PHEMCE SIP. The PHEMCE examines the SIP goals and objectives annually by taking into consideration the progress achieved and the remaining strategic gaps in MCM preparedness. During the development of the 20172018 PHEMCE SIP, the PHEMCE examined the goals and objectives articulated in the 2016 PHEMCE SIP and determined that no changes were necessary at this time.

The streamlined 2017-2018 PHEMCE SIP provides:

1) a summary of the major recent accomplishments;

2) new activities;

3) updates to the activities from the 2016 PHEMCE SIP; and

4) specific information required annually under PAHPRA reporting mandates.

The 2016 PHEMCE SIP identified priority activities in the near-term (fiscal year (FY) 20172018), mid-term (FY 2019-2020), and long-term (FY 2021 and beyond) timeframes. The PHEMCE maintained these timeframes in the 2017-2018 PHEMCE SIP. The PHEMCE is still pursuing activities detailed in the 2016 PHEMCE SIP unless otherwise noted in this document. All activities described are contingent on available appropriations.

 


A review of a mobile mass shooting in Kalamazoo

Frank Straub, Ph.D., Brett Cowell, Jennifer Zeunik, and Ben Gorban. Managing the Response to a Mobile Mass Shooting. April 2017. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.

  • “…..The sequence of events that began Saturday afternoon with the suspect driving recklessly in and around the streets of Kalamazoo, ultimately ended with his arrest early Sunday morning. During that time, he allegedly shot eight people, killing six and severely wounding two, across three separate locations in and around the city…..”

Trust for America’s Health: “As a nation, we—year after year—fail to fully support public health and preparedness. If we don’t improve our baseline funding and capabilities, we’ll continue to be caught completely off-guard when hurricanes, wildfires, and infectious disease outbreaks hit.”

TFAH

“…..the country does not invest enough to maintain strong, basic core capabilities for health security readiness and, instead, is in a continued state of inefficiently reacting with federal emergency supplemental funding packages each time a disaster strikes.

According to Ready or Not?, federal funding to support the base level of preparedness has been cut by more than half since 2002, which has eroded advancements and reduced the country’s capabilities…..

The report card is based on 10 key indicators of public health preparedness. Half of all states scored a 5 or lower (out of 10), with Alaska scoring the lowest (2), and Massachusetts and Rhode Island scoring the highest (9). Delaware, North Carolina, and Virginia each scored 8 out of 10. Florida received a 6.….

Some key findings include:

  • Just 19 states and Washington, D.C. increased or maintained funding for public health from Fiscal Year (FY) 2015-2016 to FY 2016-2017.
  • The primary source for state and local preparedness for health emergencies has been cut by about one-third (from $940 million in FY 2002 to $667 million in FY 2017) and hospital emergency preparedness funds have been cut in half ($514 million in FY 2003 to $254 million in FY 2017).
  • In 20 states and Washington, D.C. 70 percent or more of hospitals reported meeting Antibiotic Stewardship Program core elements in 2016.
  • Just 20 states vaccinated at least half of their population (ages 6 months and older) for the seasonal flu from Fall 2016 to Spring 2017—and no state was above 56 percent.
  • 47 state labs and Washington, D.C. provided biosafety training and/or provided information about biosafety training courses (July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017).

The Ready or Not? report provides a series of recommendations that address many of the major gaps in emergency health preparedness, including:

  • Communities should maintain a key set of foundational capabilities and focus on performance outcomes in exchange for increased flexibility and reduced bureaucracy.
  • Ensuring stable, sufficient health emergency preparedness funding to maintain a standing set of core capabilities so they are ready when needed. In addition, a complementary Public Health Emergency Fund is needed to provide immediate surge funding for specific action for major emerging threats.
  • Strengthening and maintaining consistent support for global health security as an effective strategy for preventing and controlling health crises. Germs know no borders.
  • Innovating and modernizing infrastructure needs – including a more focused investment strategy to support science and technology upgrades that leverage recent breakthroughs and hold the promise of transforming the nation’s ability to promptly detect and contain disease outbreaks and respond to other health emergencies.
  • Recruiting and training a next generation public health workforce with expert scientific abilities to harness and use technological advances along with critical thinking and management skills to serve as Chief Health Strategist for a community.
  • Reconsidering health system preparedness for new threats and mass outbreaks.  Develop stronger coalitions and partnerships among providers, hospitals and healthcare facilities, insurance providers, pharmaceutical and health equipment businesses, emergency management and public health agencies.
  • Preventing the negative health consequences of climate change and weather-related threats. It is essential to build the capacity to anticipate, plan for and respond to climate-related events.
  • Prioritizing efforts to address one of the most serious threats to human health by expanding efforts to stop superbugs and antibiotic resistance. 
  • Improving rates of vaccinations for children and adults – which are one of the most effective public health tools against many infectious diseases.
  • Supporting a culture of resilience so all communities are better prepared to cope with and recover from emergencies, particularly focusing on those who are most vulnerable.   Sometimes the aftermath of an emergency situation may be more harmful than the initial event.  This must also include support for local organizations and small businesses to prepare for and to respond to emergencies…….”

“There is no such thing as Rohingya,” said U Kyaw San Hla, an officer in Rakhine’s state security ministry. “It is fake news.”

NY Times

  • “….human rights watchdogs warn that much of the evidence of the Rohingya’s history in Myanmar is in danger of being eradicated by a military campaign….”
  • “….Since late August, more than 620,000 Rohingya Muslims, about two-thirds of the population that lived in Myanmar in 2016, have fled to Bangladesh,……”

UN

Brutal attacks on Rohingya meant to make their return almost impossible – UN human rights report

GENEVA (11 October 2017) – Brutal attacks against Rohingya in northern Rakhine State have been well-organised, coordinated and systematic, with the intent of not only driving the population out of Myanmar but preventing them from returning to their homes, a new UN report based on interviews conducted in Bangladesh has found.

The report by a team from the UN Human Rights Office, who met with the newly arrived Rohingya in Cox’s Bazar from 14 to 24 September 2017, states that human rights violations committed against the Rohingya population were carried out by Myanmar security forces often in concert with armed Rakhine Buddhist individuals. The report, released on Wednesday, is based on some 65 interviews with individuals and groups.

It also highlights a strategy to “instil deep and widespread fear and trauma – physical, emotional and psychological” among the Rohingya population.

More than 500,000 Rohingya have fled to Bangladesh since the Myanmar security forces launched an operation in response to alleged attacks by militants on 25 August against 30 police posts and a regimental headquarters. The report states the “clearance operations” started before 25 August 2017, and as early as the beginning of August.

The UN Human Rights Office is gravely concerned for the safety of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya who remain in northern Rakhine State amid reports the violence is still ongoing, and calls on authorities to immediately allow humanitarian and human rights actors unfettered access to the stricken areas.

The report cites testimony from witnesses that security forces scorched dwellings and entire villages, were responsible for extrajudicial and summary executions, rape and other forms of sexual violence, torture and attacks on places of worship. Eyewitnesses reported numerous killings, saying some victims were deliberately targeted and others were killed through explosions, fire and stray bullets.

A 12-year old girl from Rathedaung township described how “the [Myanmar security forces and Rakhine Buddhist individuals] surrounded our house and started to shoot. It was a situation of panic – they shot my sister in front of me, she was only seven years old. She cried and told me to run. I tried to protect her and care for her, but we had no medical assistance on the hillside and she was bleeding so much that after one day she died. I buried her myself.

The report states that in some cases, before and during the attacks, megaphones were used to announce: “You do not belong here – go to Bangladesh. If you do not leave, we will torch your houses and kill you.

Credible information indicates that the Myanmar security forces purposely destroyed the property of the Rohingyas, targeting their houses, fields, food-stocks, crops, livestock and even trees, to render the possibility of the Rohingya returning to normal lives and livelihoods in the future in northern Rakhine almost impossible.

UN Human Rights chief Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, who has described the Government operations in northern Rakhine State as “a textbook example of ethnic cleansing,” has also urged the Government to immediately end its “cruel” security operation. By denying the Rohingya population their political, civil, economic and cultural rights, including the right to citizenship, he said, the Government’s actions appear to be “a cynical ploy to forcibly transfer large numbers of people without possibility of return.”

The report indicates that efforts were taken to effectively erase signs of memorable landmarks in the geography of the Rohingya landscape and memory in such a way that a return to their lands would yield nothing but a desolate and unrecognizable terrain.

Information received also indicates that the Myanmar security forces targeted teachers, the cultural and religious leadership, and other people of influence of the Rohingya community in an effort to diminish Rohingya history, culture and knowledge.

ENDS

To read the full report, see: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/MM/CXBMissionSummaryFindingsOctober2017.pdf

For more information and media requests, please contact:Rupert Colville – + 41 22 917 9767 / rcolville@ohchr.orgLiz Throssell – + 41 22 917 9466  / ethrossell@ohchr.org  Jeremy Laurence – + 41 22 917 9383 / jlaurence@ohchr.org

 


Pneumonia takes the lives of 920,000 children annually—a life every 2 minutes, more than malaria and diarrhea combined.

Global Health Now

  • While pneumonia deaths have dropped by nearly 50% since 2000, too many kids still don’t have access to vaccines that can prevent the disease from taking hold in the first place.
  • Approximately 1/2 of the world’s children are still not receiving PCV (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine).

Save The Children Fighting for Breath

 


A report from 13 U.S. federal agencies that called evidence of a global, long-term warming trend “unambiguous.”

Climate Science Special Report: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume I [Wuebbles, D.J., D.W. Fahey, K.A. Hibbard, D.J. Dokken, B.C. Stewart, and T.K. Maycock (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 12-34, doi: 10.7930/J0DJ5CTG.

NY Times

Full Report:  https://science2017.globalchange.gov/downloads/CSSR2017_FullReport.pdf

 


Healthier world, safer America: A US government roadmap for international action to prevent the next pandemic.

“PATH is the leader in global health innovation. An international nonprofit organization, we save lives and improve health, especially among women and children. We accelerate innovation across five platforms—vaccines, drugs, diagnostics, devices, and system and service innovations—that harness our entrepreneurial insight, scientific and public health expertise, and passion for health equity. By mobilizing partners around the world, we take innovation to scale, working alongside countries primarily in Africa and Asia to tackle their greatest health needs. Together, we deliver measurable results that disrupt the cycle of poor health.”

Preventing the Next Pandemic

PATH. Healthier world, safer America: A US government roadmap for international action to prevent the next pandemic. Oct 24, 2017 [Full text]


CDC: Dengue Management Guide (Clinical management tools for health care providers)

CDC-Dengue Management Guide

DengueDHF-Information-for-Health-Care-Practitioners_2009

Life cycle of mosquitos in a diagram

Life cycle of mosquitos in jars

 

 


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