Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for June, 2018

Ethiopia: Scores of people have been injured, some critically, in an explosion at a rally for the new Prime Minister.

BBC


A major drop in anemia among India’s pregnant women has been spurred by the decline in open defecation, along with later pregnancies and improved education for women

PH Nutrition

Identifying sociodemographic, programmatic and dietary drivers of anaemia reduction in pregnant Indian women over 10 years

“……Results:

In the model accounting for both non-dietary and dietary factors, increased age at pregnancy (P<0·001), reduced village-level open defecation (P=0·001), consuming more Fe (P<0·001) and folic acid (P=0·018) and less phytate (P=0·002), and urbanization (P=0·015) were associated with anaemia reductions. A 10 mg increase in daily household Fe supply from 2012 levels was associated with a 10 % reduction in anaemia……”


People who reportedly consumed Del Monte Fresh Produce pre-packaged vegetable trays containing broccoli, cauliflower, carrots, and dill dip from Kwik Trip/Kwik Star and were infected with Cyclospora as of June 21, 2018 (n=144)

CDC

outbreak_map

Some of the elements of this figure were created based on an illustration by Ortega et al. Cyclospora cayetanensis. In: Advances in Parasitology: opportunistic protozoa in humans. San Diego: Academic Press; 1998. p. 399–418.

When freshly passed in stools, the oocyst is not infective (thus, direct fecal-oral transmission is unlikely; this differentiates Cyclospora from another important coccidian parasite, Cryptosporidium). In the environment , sporulation usually requires at least 1–2 weeks at temperatures from 22°C to 32°C, and results in division of the sporont into two sporocysts, each containing two elongated sporozoites . Fresh produce and water can serve as vehicles for transmission , and the sporulated oocysts are ingested (in contaminated food or water) . The oocysts excyst in the gastrointestinal tract, freeing the sporozoites, which invade the epithelial cells of the small intestine . Inside the cells, they undergo asexual multiplication and sexual development to mature into oocysts, which will be shed in stools .


How does the media cover epidemics?

Published Online:
“……This study analyzed 5,006 articles from leading American newspapers covering 3 epidemics: H1N1, Ebola, and Zika. Using a mixed method of automated and manual content analysis, it identified 3 distinct themes used to cover the diseases: pandemic, scientific, and social. Analysis of the themes based on CERC guidelines demonstrated substantial discrepancies between what CDC aims to communicate during epidemics and what the media actually disseminated to the public. …..”

1st case of human Usutu virus infection has been detected in France

Ouest France

“……This 1st case of human infection has been detected in France…..The patient, in his 30s, was able to be
treated, escaping the serious consequences of this virus, which attacks the nervous system.   “He arrived with a facial paralysis…. He could not move the right side of the face. He had a feeling similar to having ants all over his body onthe right side, mainly, and small motor [neuron] deficits — a rather unusual picture…….”

Usutu virus (USUV) is a relatively unknown member of the mosquito-borne cluster within the Flavivirus genus, closely related to important human pathogens such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and West Nile virus (WNV)…..”

Bakonyi Tamás, Jungbauer Christof, Aberle Stephan W., Kolodziejek Jolanta, Dimmel Katharina, Stiasny Karin, Allerberger Franz, Nowotny Norbert. Usutu virus infections among blood donors, Austria, July and August 2017 – Raising awareness for diagnostic challenges. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(41):pii=17-00644. https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.41.17-00644

“……. In a recent study conducted between 2008 and 2011 in the Modena region of Italy, which involved 915 patients with or without neurological impairments, the percentage of USUV RNA- and antibody-positive samples was significantly higher than that of WNV, raising the issue on the potential of USUV to cause human neuroinvasive disease The deleterious effect of USUV on human neural cells was also shown experimentally…….”

 

 


Potential humanitarian crisis: The number of people entering Europe through Greece and then making their way towards Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is increasing.

ReliefWeb

 

“….More than 5,600 people have reached Bosnia and Herzegovina since the beginning of January…. The Red Cross of Montenegro has assisted more than 1,000 people since the beginning of the year with food, clothes and medical supplies at reception centres and border crossings.

 

In north-western Bosnia and Herzegovina, about 1,000 people are gathered close to the border with Croatia, trapped by the terrain and closed border crossings. Many are sleeping in the open and do not have access to food, water, hygiene and sanitation.

One hundred Red Cross volunteers are serving hundreds of hot meals a day at an abandoned university campus in the town of Bihac. Volunteers are also distributing sleeping bags, clothes and hygiene kits, and providing medical assistance……

Bosnia and Herzegovina is the most mine contaminated country in Europe, with land mines covering 2.2 per cent of its territory. Some mine fields are still active in the areas where people are trying to cross the border…..”

 


6/21/1990: A 7.7M earthquake near the Caspian Sea in Iran kills more than 50,000 and injures another 135,000 people

History Channel

World History Project

ShakeMap Intensity image


Syrian atrocities in eastern Ghouta: UN draft documents use of chemical weapons against civilians

NY Times

“……In attacks on Jan. 13, Jan. 22 and Feb. 1, the draft said, government forces fired chemical agents, “most probably chlorine,” into a residential part of eastern Ghouta’s Douma neighborhood, near a sports stadium, roughly 800 yards from the front lines, between 5 a.m. and 6:30 a.m.

Some witnesses described a “slow-acting agent” that smelled like chlorine, the draft said, and they had sufficient time “to rouse the victims, obtain wet cloths to serve as makeshift face masks, and evacuate the affected areas.”……..Thirty-one people, including 11 children, were sickened in the first three attacks, but none died. Two other episodes of possible chlorine use, on Feb. 25 and March 7, caused more extensive casualties, killing two children, including an infant, and injuring 18 civilians...…..”


Oxitec, Ltd. (“Oxitec”) is entering into a cooperative agreement with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to develop a new strain of Oxitec’s self-limiting Friendly™ Mosquitoes to combat a mosquito species that spreads malaria

Oxitec Press Release

“…….Oxitec will be using its new 2nd generation Friendly™ Mosquito technology to develop an Anopheles albimanus strain to address one of the most important vectors of malaria in the Americas. All of Oxitec’s Friendly™ Mosquito strains are designed to significantly reduce the population of a targeted mosquito species in the wild without impact on human or environmental health. Upon release into the wild, Oxitec’s 2nd generation male-selecting strains mate with wild females, and only male offspring with a self-limiting gene survive to adulthood. The female offspring from these matings – only female mosquitoes bite – will die before reaching adulthood. The surviving non-biting males subsequently seek out and mate with more wild females and pass along the self-limiting trait for up to ten generations before no longer persisting in the environment. When deployed as part of an integrated vector control program, this strain is anticipated to dramatically reduce wild populations of this malaria-transmitting mosquito species, while still ensuring Oxitec self-limiting mosquitoes do not persist in the environment...…..”

 


Ebola in the DRC: SitRep, 6/18/18

The epidemiological situation of the Ebola Virus Disease dated June 18, 2018 :
  • A total of 60 cases of haemorrhagic fever were reported in the region, including 38 confirmed, 14 probable and 8 suspected .
  • 5 new suspicious cases in Iboko
  • 7 samples were negative
  • 24 people have been cured of Ebola Virus Disease since the beginning of the epidemic
  • No deaths reported so far
  • No new cases confirmed

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