Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘MERS-CoV’ Category

WHO: Between 1 and 10 June 2017, the national IHR focal point of Saudi Arabia reported 35 additional cases of MERS-CoV

WHO

Disease outbreak news
13 June 2017

Between 1 and 10 June 2017, the national IHR focal point of Saudi Arabia reported 35 additional cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection including three fatal cases and one death among previously reported cases (case number 5 in the Disease Outbreak News published on 6 June 2017).

Details of the cases

Detailed information concerning the cases reported can be found in a separate document (see link below).

Thirty-two of the 35 newly reported cases are associated with three simultaneous clusters of MERS, of which two are related. A description of the three clusters is below.

Cluster 1

A cluster of MERS has been identified in a hospital in Riyadh city, Riyadh Region. Twenty three cases associated with this cluster thus far and include the first identified case (a 47-year-old male reported on 1 June), 14 asymptomatic health care worker contacts, one household contact, and seven hospital contacts who were patients.

Cluster 2

This MERS cluster is occurring in a second hospital in Riyadh City, Riyadh Region. This cluster is related to cluster 1 above. The first identified case of this second cluster visited the emergency room of the cluster 1 hospital. He was asymptomatic and following this visit in hospital 1, he continued to receive kidney dialysis sessions in the second hospital. To date, this cluster involves six cases, including the case involved in cluster 1, and secondary household and health care worker contacts.

Cluster 3

This MERS cluster is currently occurring in a third hospital in Riyadh city, Riyadh Region. To date the cluster involves the four cases including the first identified case who reported contacts with dromedary camels and three asymptomatic or mild cases who were health care worker contacts.

Public health response

The Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia is evaluating each case and their contacts and implementing measures to limit further human-to-human transmission and bring these outbreaks to a control. These measures include:

  • Proper isolation for all confirmed cases;
  • Active tracing for all contacts of patients, healthcare workers and community contacts;
  • Identification of high and low risk contacts with daily monitoring for all during incubation period of the 14 days and performing laboratory testing for high risk contacts, regardless of the development of symptoms;
  • Regular updating of the line list of cases and contacts and conducting epidemiological analysis of data to identify the source of infection, links between patients and reasons for human-to-human transmission within hospitals;
  • Searching for suspected cases between patients and healthcare workers based on case definition of the disease;
  • Enforcement of strict adherence to proper environmental cleaning, disinfection and terminal cleaning and disinfection for hospital environment with special care in departments where the outbreaks are currently occurring or have occurred;
  • Enforcement of visual triage for respiratory diseases in emergency department and outpatient departments and ensure the 24/7 availability of a trained nurse for early detection of patients with respiratory symptoms, and proper documentation in triage forms;
  • Extensive training of all healthcare workers on case definition for early detection, implementation of isolation precautions, proper selection, donning and doffing of PPEs, hand hygiene and environmental cleaning and disinfection;
  • Ensuring that all healthcare workers tested for N95 fitting (fit test);
  • Ensuring availability of infection prevention supplies including hand sanitizer, PPEs, surface disinfectants, portable HEPA filters and fumigation machines;
  • Enforcing the implementation of a policy of not allowing healthcare workers to travel without medical clearance to prevent the spread of the virus to other countries.

For cases that report contact with dromedary camels, investigations of MERS-CoV infection in dromedaries is conducted by Ministry of Agriculture officials.

Globally, 2015 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV including at least 703 related deaths have been reported to WHO since 2012.

WHO risk assessment

MERS-CoV causes severe human infections resulting in high mortality and has demonstrated the ability to transmit between humans. So far, the observed human-to-human transmission has occurred mainly in health care settings.

The notification of additional cases does not change the overall risk assessment. WHO expects that additional cases of MERS-CoV infection will be reported from the Middle East, and that cases will continue to be exported to other countries by individuals who might acquire the infection after exposure to animals or animal products (for example, following contact with dromedaries) or human source (for example, in a health care setting). WHO is working closely with the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia, continues to monitor the epidemiological situation and viral changes, and conducts risk assessment based on the latest available information. To date, there is no indication that there is sustained human-to-human transmission or that the epidemiologic pattern or viral characteristics are different than what has been reported previously.

WHO advice

Based on the current situation and available information, WHO encourages all Member States to continue their surveillance for acute respiratory infections and to carefully review any unusual patterns.

Infection prevention and control measures are critical to prevent the possible spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. It is not always possible to identify patients with MERS-CoV early because like other respiratory infections, the early symptoms of MERS-CoV are non-specific. Therefore, health-care workers should always apply standard precautions consistently with all patients, regardless of their diagnosis. Droplet precautions should be added to the standard precautions when providing care to patients with symptoms of acute respiratory infection; contact precautions and eye protection should be added when caring for probable or confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection; airborne precautions should be applied when performing aerosol generating procedures.

Until more is understood about MERS-CoV, people with diabetes, renal failure, chronic lung disease, and immunocompromised persons are considered to be at high risk of severe disease from MERS-CoV infection. Therefore, these people should avoid close contact with animals, particularly camels, when visiting farms, markets, or barn areas where the virus is known to be potentially circulating. General hygiene measures, such as regular hand washing before and after touching animals and avoiding contact with sick animals, should be adhered to.

Food hygiene practices should be observed. People should avoid drinking raw camel milk or camel urine, or eating meat that has not been properly cooked.

WHO does not advise special screening at points of entry with regard to this event nor does it currently recommend the application of any travel or trade restrictions.


The Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health (MOH) reported 7 new cases of MERS-CoV, all associated with hospital outbreaks

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“……five healthcare workers from Riyadh were diagnosed as having MERS-CoV. The three women and two men are all expatriate healthcare workers who contracted the disease on the job. Their ages range from 35 to 57, and all are in stable condition. Only two of the five employees had symptoms…..”


MERS-CoV – Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Qatar

CDC

Disease outbreak news
6 June 2017

Between 21 April and 29 May 2017, the National IHR Focal Point of Saudi Arabia reported 25 additional cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection including six fatal cases. On 16 May 2017, the IHR NFP of the United Arab Emirates reported two (2) additional case of MERS-CoV. On 23 May 2017, the National IHR Focal Point of Qatar reported one additional case of MERS-CoV.

Details of the cases

Detailed information concerning the cases reported can be found in a separate document (see link below).

Saudi Arabia

Between 21 April and 29 May 2017, 25 cases of MERS-CoV infection were reported in Saudi Arabia including six fatal cases. Twelve of the 25 reported cases during this time period were associated with three simultaneous, yet unrelated clusters of MERS cases. The Ministry of Health is evaluating each case and their contacts and implementing measures to limit further human-to-human transmission. A description of the three clusters is below.

Cluster 1

A cluster of cases has been identified at a hospital in Bisha city, Assir Region. Cases associated with this cluster are:

  • First identified fatal case: A 71-year-old male reported on 9 May.
  • Secondary case – Healthcare contact: A 54-year-old male reported to WHO on 13 May.
  • Secondary case – Healthcare contact: A 57-year-old male reported to WHO on 17 May.
Cluster 2

A cluster of cases has been identified in a hospital in Riyadh city, Riyadh Region. Cases associated with this cluster are:

  • First identified fatal case: A 55-year-old male reported to WHO on 14 May.
  • Secondary case – Healthcare contact: A 33-year-old male reported to WHO on 15 May.
  • Secondary case – Healthcare contact: A 30-year-old female reported to WHO on 15 May.
  • Secondary case – Healthcare contact: A 25-year-old female reported to WHO on 16 May.
  • Secondary case – Healthcare contact: A 38-year-old male reported to WHO on 17 May.
Cluster 3

A third cluster was detected at a hospital in Wadi Aldwaser city, Riyadh Region. This outbreak is believed to be over based on the follow-up period of all contacts. The four newly identified cases associated with this outbreak are listed below. In total, five cases were associated with this outbreak: First identified case: A 55-year-old male previously reported to WHO on 19 April (see Disease Outbreak News published on 27 April 2017).

  • Secondary case – Household contact: A 50-year-old male reported to WHO on 21 April.
  • Secondary case – Household contact: A 58-year-old male reported to WHO on 21 April.
  • Secondary case – Healthcare contact: A 31-year-old male reported to WHO on 21 April.
  • Secondary case – Household contact: A 26-year-old male reported to WHO on 26 April.

United Arab Emirates

On 16 May 2017, two cases of MERS-CoV infection were reported in the United Arab Emirates. Both cases were reported from Al Ain city and both have reported direct links to dromedary camels. The first case that was identified, a 69-year-old male farmer, is in critical condition in hospital and the second case, a 45-year-old male butcher, is asymptomatic and identified during contact tracing of the first case. Contact tracing and dromedary investigations are ongoing.

Qatar

On 23 May 2017, one case of MERS-CoV infection was reported in Qatar. The case, a 29 year old male from Doha has reported frequent contact with dromedary camels. The Department of Health Protection and Communicable Disease Control in the Ministry of Public Health and animal health resources are currently carrying out case investigation and contact tracing.

Globally, since September 2012, WHO has been notified of 1980 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV including at least 699 related deaths have been reported.

WHO risk assessment

MERS-CoV causes severe human infections resulting in high mortality and has demonstrated the ability to transmit between humans. So far, the observed human-to-human transmission has occurred mainly in health care settings.

The notification of additional cases does not change the overall risk assessment. WHO expects that additional cases of MERS-CoV infection will be reported from the Middle East, and that cases will continue to be exported to other countries by individuals who might acquire the infection after exposure to animals or animal products (for example, following contact with dromedaries) or human source (for example, in a health care setting). WHO continues to monitor the epidemiological situation and conducts risk assessment based on the latest available information.

WHO advice

Based on the current situation and available information, WHO encourages all Member States to continue their surveillance for acute respiratory infections and to carefully review any unusual patterns.

Infection prevention and control measures are critical to prevent the possible spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. It is not always possible to identify patients with MERS-CoV early because like other respiratory infections, the early symptoms of MERS-CoV are non-specific. Therefore, health-care workers should always apply standard precautions consistently with all patients, regardless of their diagnosis. Droplet precautions should be added to the standard precautions when providing care to patients with symptoms of acute respiratory infection; contact precautions and eye protection should be added when caring for probable or confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection; airborne precautions should be applied when performing aerosol generating procedures.

Until more is understood about MERS-CoV, people with diabetes, renal failure, chronic lung disease, and immunocompromised persons are considered to be at high risk of severe disease from MERS-CoV infection. Therefore, these people should avoid close contact with animals, particularly dromedary camels, when visiting farms, markets, or barn areas where the virus is known to be potentially circulating. General hygiene measures, such as regular hand washing before and after touching animals and avoiding contact with sick animals, should be adhered to.

Food hygiene practices should be observed. People should avoid drinking raw camel milk or camel urine, or eating meat that has not been properly cooked.

WHO does not advise special screening at points of entry with regard to this event nor does it currently recommend the application of any travel or trade restrictions.


Saudi MOH: ‘3 New Confirmed Corona Cases Recorded’

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Saudi MOH: ‘1 New Confirmed Corona Cases Recorded’

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Qatar: A new MERS-CoV case has been confirmed for a 29 years old camel worker

Ministry of Public Health

Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) has announced that a new Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) case has been confirmed for a 29 years old, resident in Qatar, marking the third MERS-CoV case to be confirmed in the country this year and bringing the cumulative number of confirmed MERS-CoV cases since 2012 to 21 cases among whom 7 have died.

Map of Qatar


The patient is a camel worker and had complaints of fever and dry cough for several days. He sought a medical attention in Hamad General Hospital where an X-Ray investigation suggested a severe pneumonia. Consequently and as he reported an occupational frequent contact with camels, further samples were withdrawn from the patient. He ultimately tested positive for MERS-CoV according to Hamad Medical Corporation laboratories.

Despite his stable condition, the patient was admitted to hospital, in consistence with the national infection prevention and control protocol for confirmed and suspected MERS-CoV cases to ensure the appropriate medical attention. However, neither a history of contact with similar cases nor a recent travel outside the country was reported for the patient who has no comorbidities.

Once the case has been confirmed, the rapid response team of the Health Protection and Communicable disease Control (HP & CDC) department at the MOPH, accompanied with the team from Animal Health Department, Ministry of Municipality and Environment, have started a field investigation to assess the possible source of the infection and to verify whether any of the patient contacts has suspected symptoms according to the WHO standard case definition. Consequently, all traced contacts will be monitored over a period of two weeks, while those who develop suspected symptoms will then be subjected to confirmatory laboratory investigation.

The Ministry of Public Health advices citizens and residents, in particular those with comorbidities or low immunity, to abide to cough etiquette and handwashing with soap and water thoroughly and avoid unnecessary contact with sick animals.

MOPH proclaimed that Health Protection &CDC Hotlines 66740948 & 66740951 are accessible 24/7 to respond to any notification or enquiry related to infectious diseases.


Saudi MOH: ‘2 New Confirmed Corona Cases Recorded’

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The latest infections raise Saudi Arabia’s number of MERS cases since the disease was first detected in humans in 2012 to 1,611, which now includes 666 deaths.


Two more MERS cases linked to hospitals in Saudi Arabia

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Saudi MOH: ‘2 New Confirmed Corona Cases Recorded’

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Saudi MOH: ‘2 New Confirmed Corona Cases Recorded’

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