Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Volcano’ Category

Heavy eruptions of the Tambora volcano in Indonesia over the course of days killed over 100 000.

History Channel

“….. In subsequent months, more than 80,000 people died in the surrounding area from starvation due to the resulting crop failures and disease…..”


3/8/1669: Mount Etna begins rumbling and multiple eruptions over the next few weeks kills more than 20,000 people and leaves thousands more homeless.



Almost 36,000 people have fled to temporary shelters as of Tuesday morning, following eruptions of the restive Mayon Volcano

GMA News

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) declared alert level 4 which warns of an imminent hazardous eruption — possibly within days.

Level 5 means a hazardous eruption is taking place.


The Philippines’ most active volcano, Mayon, has shown signs of imminent eruption, forcing thousands of people on the main island of Luzon to evacuate.


Fears of an imminent major eruption of Bali’s Mount Agung have increased and the evacuation zone around the volcano has been widened.



11/13/1985: Nevado del Ruiz, the highest active volcano in the Andes Mountains of Colombia, erupts killing more than 23,000 people, injuring over 5,000, and destroying more than 5,000 homes.

History Channel



Tremors: More than 120,000 people have fled the region around the Mount Agung volcano on the Indonesian tourist island of Bali



Mount Agung in Bali: Authorities raised the volcano’s alert status to the highest level Friday following a “tremendous increase” in seismic activity.

Washington Post

Plate Tectonics & The Ring of Fire

National Park Service

The Earth is made up of roughly a dozen major plates and several minor plates. These plates are constantly moving, some as fast as 15 centimeters a year



SUBDUCTION ZONE:  At a convergent plate boundary the older, more dense crust will sink, or “subduct” under the other. There can be a Normal-Angle Subduction and a Low-Angle Subduction.


ISLAND ARC SETTING:  An island-arc setting includes a chain of offshore, island volcanoes above a subducting plate. The back-arc is located opposite the trench and subducting plate, behind the chain of volcanoes called an “island arc”.


HOTSPOTS:  This graphic shows the evolution of a chain of islands over stationary mantle plume (hotspot) within Earth’s crust.


PACIFIC OCEAN HOTSPOTS:  Tectonic setting of the Pacific Plate with selected hotspots indicated. The “kink” between the Emperor Seamounts and Hawaiian Islands chain shows how the direction of plate motion changed while the Hawaiian hotspot remained stationary.


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