Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Influenza’ Category

2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 10 ending March 11, 2017

CDC

Synopsis:

During week 10 (March 5-11, 2017), influenza activity decreased, but remained elevated in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 10 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 46.9 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 3.7%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. Seven of ten regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. 18 states experienced high ILI activity; seven states experienced moderate ILI activity; five states experienced low ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico, and 20 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in 36 states was reported as widespread; Guam, Puerto Rico and 11 states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and three states reported local activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

Click on image to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool

national levels of ILI and ARI

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 10

 


CDC: During week 9 (February 26-March 4, 2017), influenza activity decreased, but remained elevated in the United States.

CDC

Synopsis:

During week 9 (February 26-March 4, 2017), influenza activity decreased, but remained elevated in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 9 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Eight influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 43.5 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 3.6%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. Eight of ten regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. 14 states experienced high ILI activity; 12 states experienced moderate ILI activity; eight states experienced low ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico, and 16 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in Puerto Rico and 39 states was reported as widespread; Guam and eight states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and two states reported local activity; one state reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

Click on image to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool2

national levels of ILI and ARI

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 09


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 8 ending February 25, 2017: Influenza activity remains elevated in the United States.

During week 8 (February 19-25 2017), influenza activity remained elevated in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 8 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories remained elevated.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Six influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 39.4 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 4.8%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. All 10 regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. 27 states experienced high ILI activity; four states experienced moderate ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico and six states experienced low ILI activity; 13 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in Puerto Rico and 43 states was reported as widespread; Guam and five states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and two states reported local activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported sporadic activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

Click on image to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool2

national levels of ILI and ARI

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 08

 


“The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) flu vaccine advisory group today recommended changing one strain—the 2009 H1N1 component—for the Northern Hemisphere’s 2017-18 flu season……Also, the advisors reviewed the latest genetic information about recent avian and other zoonotic flu viruses and recommended two new candidate vaccine viruses for H7N9 avian flu, plus three new ones for other potential pandemic threats….”

CIDRAP

“…..The WHO recommends the following for the Northern Hemisphere’s trivalent vaccines:

  • For H1N1, an A/Michigan/45/2015-like virus
  • For H3N2, an A/Hong Hong/4801/2014-like virus
  • For B, Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (belonging to the Victoria lineage)

For quadrivalent versions that contain two influenza B strains, the WHO experts recommended adding Phuket/3073/2013-like virus, a Yamagata lineage virus that is the second B component of quadrivalent vaccines for both the Southern Hemisphere’s past and the Northern Hemisphere’s current season….”

	Pandemic Flu Monitoring

“…..Today the group said that recent H7N9 viruses fall into the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) or Pearl River Delta (PRD) hemagglutinin lineages, and that two existing candidate vaccine viruses don’t seem to protect against recent YRD-lineage viruses. They proposed a new candidate vaccine virus to protect against those viruses.

Also, they said the newly identified highly pathogenic H7N9 viruses isolated from poultry and people are genetically and antigenically distinct from other H7N9 viruses, including recommended candidate strain, including the newly proposed one. Therefore, the group recommended a new candidate vaccine virus to protect against the highly pathogenic H7N9 strain.

The group also recommended three other candidate pandemic vaccine viruses, two against recent variant H1N1 strains and one against the recent H5N6 virus circulating in Japan and South Korea……”

 Planning & Preparedness Resources

 


Markers of Disease Severity in Patients with Spanish Influenza in the Japanese Armed Forces, 1919–1920

EID Journal

Kudo K, Manabe T, Izumi S, Takasaki J, Fujikura Y, Kawana A, et al. Markers of disease severity in patients with Spanish influenza in the Japanese Armed Forces, 1919–1920. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 Apr [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2304.152097

“…..The first and second waves of the Spanish influenza pandemic in Japan affected ≈21 million persons (257,000 deaths) and 2 million persons (127,000 deaths), respectively. ……….

The Study

We analyzed medical charts preserved at the former First Army Hospital in Tokyo, Japan, and other affiliated hospitals. We previously described the clinical features of Spanish influenza among patients who were hospitalized at several study sites (2). Recently, additional records of patients affected by the second wave of disease during 1919–1920 were discovered, and these patients were the subjects of this study.

A total of 470 patients hospitalized during January 1919–January 1920 and diagnosed with Spanish influenza (as “epidemic cold” or “pneumonia due to epidemic cold”) fit the criteria for inclusion in the study. All patients were male soldiers or officers in the military of Japan. We collected data concerning patients’ general background and physical assessments, including lung sounds and fever charts. Among all patients, 8 (2%) died. We divided the patients who survived (n = 462, 98%) into 3 groups on the basis of hospitalization length: <10 days (28%), 11–20 days (34%), and >21 days (36%); we compared variables among the 3 groups. High fever was defined as a body temperature >38°C, and diphasic fever was defined as a body temperature >38°C after the initial fever had decreased to <37.5°C. Data on adventitious lung sounds collected during the hospitalization period were classified (on the basis of international classifications) as continuous, discontinuous, bronchial on the chest wall, and friction rub sounds (3). The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Of the 8 patients who died, 6 died within 10 days of hospital admission. Median length of hospitalization was 7 days for nonsurvivors and 16 days for survivors. The proportion of patients with audible adventitious lung sounds was significantly higher among those hospitalized for >21 days and among those who did not survive (Table 1(https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/4/15-2097-t1)). Factors associated with the length of hospitalization in survivors (identified by using a Cox hazard proportional model) included diphasic fever, >6 days of continuing high fever from admission, a maximum respiration rate >26 breaths/min, and adventitious discontinuous lung sounds (Table 2(https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/23/4/15-2097-t2))……”


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 7 ending February 18, 2017

CDC

All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received.

Synopsis:

During week 7 (February 12-18 2017), influenza activity decreased slightly but remained elevated in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 7 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased slightly but remained elevated.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 33.7 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 4.8%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. Nine regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. 27 states experienced high ILI activity; New York City and five states experienced moderate ILI activity; Puerto Rico and 10 states experienced low ILI activity; eight states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in Puerto Rico and 44 states was reported as widespread; Guam and four states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and one state reported local activity; one state reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

Click on image to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool2

national levels of ILI and ARI

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 07


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 6 ending February 11, 2017

CDC

During week 6 (February 5-11, 2017), influenza activity increased in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 6 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories increased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Nine influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations:A cumulative rate for the season of 29.4 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance:The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 5.2%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. All 10 regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. New York City and 28 states experienced high ILI activity; Puerto Rico and seven states experienced moderate ILI activity; five states experienced low ILI activity; nine states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in Puerto Rico and 46 states was reported as widespread; Guam and four states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia reported local activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported sporadic activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

Click on image to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool2

national levels of ILI and ARI

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 06

 


Interim influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates for the 2016–17 season indicate that vaccination reduced the risk for influenza-associated medical visits by approximately half.

MMWR

Flannery B, Chung JR, Thaker SN, et al. Interim Estimates of 2016–17 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness — United States, February 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:167–171. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6606a3.

“Influenza activity in the United States began to increase in mid-December, remained elevated through February 4, 2016, and is expected to continue for several more weeks. During October 2, 2016–February 4, 2017, influenza A (H3N2) viruses were identified most frequently, but influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses were also reported. No antiviral resistance to oseltamivir, zanamivir, or peramivir has been identified among influenza viruses tested to date.”

 


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 5 ending February 4, 2017

CDC

During week 5 (January 29-February 4, 2017), influenza activity increased in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 5 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories increased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 24.3 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance:The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 4.8%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. All 10 regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. New York City and 23 states experienced high ILI activity; 10 states experienced moderate ILI activity; Puerto Rico and eight states experienced low ILI activity; nine states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in Puerto Rico and 43 states was reported as widespread; Guam and six states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and one state reported local activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

Click on image to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool2

national levels of ILI and ARI

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 05


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 4 ending January 28, 2017

CDC Synopsis:

During week 4 (January 22-28, 2017), influenza activity increased in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 4 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories increased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: Due to data processing problems, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) mortality surveillance data for the week ending January 14, 2015 (week 2) will not be published this week.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Seven influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 20.3 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance:The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 3.9%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. All 10 regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. New York City and 15 states experienced high ILI activity; Puerto Rico and 11 states experienced moderate ILI activity; 14 states experienced low ILI activity; 10 states experienced minimal ILI activity, and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in Puerto Rico and 40 states was reported as widespread; Guam and nine states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and one state reported local activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

Click on image to launch interactive tool

Seven influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported to CDC during week 4. Three deaths were associated with an influenza A (H3) virus and occurred during weeks 1, 2, and 4 (the weeks ending January 7, 14, and 28, 2017, respectively). Three deaths were associated with an influenza A virus for which no subtyping was performed and occurred during weeks 1, 3, and 4 (the weeks ending January 7, 21, and 28, 2017, respectively). One death was associated with an influenza B virus and occurred during week 3 (the week ending January 21, 2017).

A total of 15 influenza-associated pediatric deaths have been reported for the 2016-2017 season.

Click on graph to launch interactive tool2

national levels of ILI and ARI

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 04Click on graph to launch interactive tool

 

 


Categories

Recent Posts

Archives

Admin