Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Influenza’ Category

Clarithromycin and naproxen were dosed at 500 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily, respectively, along with oseltamivir and amoxicillin-clavulanate: The combination group achieved lower 30-day and 90-day mortality as well as shorter lengths of stay than the controls.

Hung IFN, To KKW, Chan JFW, et al. Efficacy of clarithromycin-naproxen-oseltamivir combination in the treatment of patients hospitalized for influenza A(H3N2) infection. Chest 2017;151:1069-1080.

“….Though limited by its single center, open-label status, this study nonetheless provides important proof-of-concept that antiviral therapy for hospitalized influenza patients can be supplemented with clarithromycin and naproxen to achieve better clinical outcomes…..”


CDC: Week 20 (May 14-20, 2017), influenza activity decreased in the United States.

CDC

During week 20 (May 14-20, 2017), influenza activity decreased in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus type reported by public health laboratories during week 20 was influenza B. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Three influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 65.2 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 1.3%, which is below the national baseline of 2.2%. All ten regions reported ILI below their region-specific baseline levels. One state experienced low ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico, and 49 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in Guam and two states was reported as regional; Puerto Rico and nine states reported local activity; the District of Columbia and 34 states reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands and five states reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

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Click on graph to launch interactive tool

national levels of ILI and ARI

 


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 19 ending May 13, 2017

CDC

Synopsis:

During week 19 (May 7-13, 2017), influenza activity decreased in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus type reported by public health laboratories during week 19 was influenza B. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: One influenza-associated pediatric death was reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 64.7 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 1.3%, which is below the national baseline of 2.2%. All ten regions reported ILI below their region-specific baseline levels. One state experienced low ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico, and 47 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia and two states had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in Guam and five states was reported as regional activity; Puerto Rico and eight states reported local activity; the District of Columbia and 36 states reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands and one state reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

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national levels of ILI and ARI

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Movements during routine nursing procedures can increase the risk of face seal leakage of N95 respirators, according to a study that involved nursing students who wore backpack aerosol spectrometers that measured particles that entered the mask.

Am J Infection Control

Highlights

  • N95 respirators, although adequately fitted, may not provide consistent protection for users.
  • Movements during nursing procedures can significantly increase the risk of face seal leakage.
  • Improvements in respirator design to minimize face seal leakage are essential.
  • Portable aerosol spectrometers offer a reliable method for real-time measurement of N95 mask fit.

Background

The adequate fit of an N95 respirator is important for health care workers to reduce the transmission of airborne infectious diseases in the clinical setting. This study aimed to evaluate whether adequately sealed N95 respirators may provide consistent protection for the wearer while performing nursing procedures.

Methods

Participants were a group of nursing students (N = 120). The best fitting respirator for these participants was identified from the 3 common models, 1860, 1860S, and 1870+ (3M), using the quantitative fit test (QNFT) method. Participants performed nursing procedures for 10-minute periods while wearing a backpack containing the portable aerosol spectrometers throughout the assessment to detect air particles inside the respirator.

Results

The average fit factor of the best fitting respirator worn by the participants dropped significantly after nursing procedures (184.85 vs 134.71) as detected by the QNFT. In addition, significant differences in particle concentration of different sizes (>0.3, >0.4, >1.0, and >4.0 µm) inside the respirator were detected by the portable aerosol spectrometers before, during, and after nursing procedures.

Conclusions

Body movements during nursing procedures may increase the risk of face seal leakage. Further research, including the development of prototype devices for better respirator fit, is necessary to improve respiratory protection of users.


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 16 ending April 22, 2017

CDC

Synopsis:

During week 16 (April 16-22, 2017), influenza activity decreased in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus type reported by public health laboratories during week 16 was influenza B. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths:Six influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations:A cumulative rate for the season of 62.7 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 1.8%, which is below the national baseline of 2.2%. Two of ten regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. Four states experienced low ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico, and 46 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in seven states was reported as widespread; Guam, Puerto Rico and 11 states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and 19 states reported local activity; 13 states reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

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national levels of ILI and ARI Click on graph to launch interactive tool

Click on map to launch interactive tool


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 14 ending April 8, 2017

CDC

Synopsis:

During week 14 (April 2-8, 2017), influenza activity decreased but remained elevated in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus type reported by public health laboratories during week 14 was influenza B. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported, four that occurred during the 2016-2017 season and one that occurred during the 2010-2011 season.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 59.4 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 2.6%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. Five of ten regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. Two states experienced high ILI activity; seven states experienced moderate ILI activity; New York City and 11 states experienced low ILI activity; Puerto Rico and 30 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in 18 states was reported as widespread; Guam, Puerto Rico, and 18 states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and 12 states reported local activity; two states reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

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Click on graph to launch interactive tool

national levels of ILI and ARI

U. S. map for Weekly Influenza Activity


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 13 ending April 1, 2017

CDC

All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received.

Synopsis:

During week 13 (March 26-April 1, 2017), influenza activity decreased but remained elevated in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus type reported by public health laboratories during week 13 was influenza B. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased slightly.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Seven influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 57.2 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 2.9%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. Six of ten regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. Nine states experienced high ILI activity; five states experienced moderate ILI activity; New York City and nine states experienced low ILI activity; Puerto Rico and 27 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in 24 states was reported as widespread; Guam, Puerto Rico and 19 states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and five states reported local activity; two states reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

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national levels of ILI and ARI Click on graph to launch interactive tool

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 13


Flu week 12 (March 19-25, 2017) in the United States.

CDC

Synopsis:

During week 12 (March 19-25, 2017), influenza activity remained elevated in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 12 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories increased slightly.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Six influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 54.1 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 3.2%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. Eight of ten regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. 10 states experienced high ILI activity; eight states experienced moderate ILI activity; eight states experienced low ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico, and 24 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in 31 states was reported as widespread; Guam, Puerto Rico and 12 states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and five states reported local activity; two states reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

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national levels of ILI and ARI Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 12Click on graph to launch interactive tool

 


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 11 ending March 18, 2017

CDC

Synopsis:

During week 11 (March 12-18, 2017), influenza activity decreased, but remained elevated in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 11 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Two influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 50.4 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 3.2%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. Seven of ten regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. 12 states experienced high ILI activity; six states experienced moderate ILI activity; nine states experienced low ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico, and 23 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in 36 states was reported as widespread; Guam, Puerto Rico and 10 states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and two states reported local activity; two states reported sporadic activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

Click on image to launch interactive tool

Click on graph to launch interactive tool

national levels of ILI and ARI

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 11


2016-2017 Influenza Season Week 10 ending March 11, 2017

CDC

Synopsis:

During week 10 (March 5-11, 2017), influenza activity decreased, but remained elevated in the United States.

  • Viral Surveillance: The most frequently identified influenza virus subtype reported by public health laboratories during week 10 was influenza A (H3). The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories decreased.
  • Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality: The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was above the system-specific epidemic threshold in the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Surveillance System.
  • Influenza-associated Pediatric Deaths: Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported.
  • Influenza-associated Hospitalizations: A cumulative rate for the season of 46.9 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations per 100,000 population was reported.
  • Outpatient Illness Surveillance: The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was 3.7%, which is above the national baseline of 2.2%. Seven of ten regions reported ILI at or above their region-specific baseline levels. 18 states experienced high ILI activity; seven states experienced moderate ILI activity; five states experienced low ILI activity; New York City, Puerto Rico, and 20 states experienced minimal ILI activity; and the District of Columbia had insufficient data.
  • Geographic Spread of Influenza: The geographic spread of influenza in 36 states was reported as widespread; Guam, Puerto Rico and 11 states reported regional activity; the District of Columbia and three states reported local activity; and the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no activity.

INFLUENZA Virus Isolated

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national levels of ILI and ARI

Weekly Flu Activity Map: Week 10

 


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