Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Tsunami’ Category

An undersea earthquake of magnitude 7.0 struck in the South Pacific on Monday, sending tsunami waves towards New Caledonia and Vanuatu.

Daily Telegraph

ShakeMap Intensity image

 


11/13/1970: An immense tidal wave and storm surge caused by a powerful cyclone kills over 200,000 people in East Pakistan (Bangladesh).

History Channel

 


Plate Tectonics & The Ring of Fire

National Park Service

The Earth is made up of roughly a dozen major plates and several minor plates. These plates are constantly moving, some as fast as 15 centimeters a year

FAULT TYPES

 

SUBDUCTION ZONE:  At a convergent plate boundary the older, more dense crust will sink, or “subduct” under the other. There can be a Normal-Angle Subduction and a Low-Angle Subduction.

 

ISLAND ARC SETTING:  An island-arc setting includes a chain of offshore, island volcanoes above a subducting plate. The back-arc is located opposite the trench and subducting plate, behind the chain of volcanoes called an “island arc”.

 

HOTSPOTS:  This graphic shows the evolution of a chain of islands over stationary mantle plume (hotspot) within Earth’s crust.

 

PACIFIC OCEAN HOTSPOTS:  Tectonic setting of the Pacific Plate with selected hotspots indicated. The “kink” between the Emperor Seamounts and Hawaiian Islands chain shows how the direction of plate motion changed while the Hawaiian hotspot remained stationary.


A powerful earthquake (8.1M) struck off the Pacific Coast of Mexico late Thursday, shaking buildings as far away as Mexico City & causing at least 5 deaths.

NY Times

ShakeMap Intensity image

Population Exposure Map

Population per ~1 sq. km. from LandScan

MMI Shaking Pop.
I Not Felt –*
II-III Weak 23,604 k*
IV Light 37,718 k*
V Moderate 19,460 k
VI Strong 6,679 k
VII Very Strong 2,144 k
VIII Severe 579 k
IX Violent 23 k
X Extreme 0 k

Structure Information Summary

Overall, the population in this region resides in structures that are a mix of vulnerable and earthquake resistant construction. The predominant vulnerable building types are adobe block with concrete bond beam and mud wall construction.

Secondary Effects

Recent earthquakes in this area have caused secondary hazards such as tsunamis and landslides that might have contributed to losses.

TSUNAMI THREAT

ZCZC
WEPA40 PHEB 080856
TSUPAC

TSUNAMI MESSAGE NUMBER 7
NWS PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER EWA BEACH HI
0855 UTC FRI SEP 8 2017

…PTWC TSUNAMI THREAT MESSAGE…

 

**** NOTICE **** NOTICE **** NOTICE **** NOTICE **** NOTICE *****

THIS MESSAGE IS ISSUED FOR INFORMATION ONLY IN SUPPORT OF THE
UNESCO/IOC PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING AND MITIGATION SYSTEM AND IS
MEANT FOR NATIONAL AUTHORITIES IN EACH COUNTRY OF THAT SYSTEM.

NATIONAL AUTHORITIES WILL DETERMINE THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF
ALERT FOR EACH COUNTRY AND MAY ISSUE ADDITIONAL OR MORE REFINED
INFORMATION.

**** NOTICE **** NOTICE **** NOTICE **** NOTICE **** NOTICE *****

THE TSUNAMI FORECAST IS UNCHANGED IN THIS MESSAGE.

 

PRELIMINARY EARTHQUAKE PARAMETERS
———————————

* MAGNITUDE 8.2
* ORIGIN TIME 0449 UTC SEP 8 2017
* COORDINATES 14.9 NORTH 94.0 WEST
* DEPTH 33 KM / 20 MILES
* LOCATION OFF THE COAST OF CHIAPAS MEXICO

 

EVALUATION
———-

* AN EARTHQUAKE WITH A PRELIMINARY MAGNITUDE OF 8.2 OCCURRED
OFF THE COAST OF CHIAPAS, MEXICO AT 0449 UTC ON FRIDAY
SEPTEMBER 8 2017.

* TSUNAMI WAVES HAVE BEEN OBSERVED.

* BASED ON ALL AVAILABLE DATA… HAZARDOUS TSUNAMI WAVES ARE
FORECAST FOR SOME COASTS.

 

TSUNAMI THREAT FORECAST
———————–

* TSUNAMI WAVES REACHING MORE THAN 3 METERS ABOVE THE TIDE
LEVEL ARE POSSIBLE ALONG SOME COASTS OF

MEXICO.

 

* TSUNAMI WAVES REACHING 0.3 TO 1 METERS ABOVE THE TIDE LEVEL
ARE POSSIBLE FOR SOME COASTS OF

AMERICAN SAMOA… ANTARCTICA… COOK ISLANDS… ECUADOR…
EL SALVADOR… FIJI… FRENCH POLYNESIA… GUATEMALA…
KIRIBATI… NEW ZEALAND… SAMOA… TOKELAU… TUVALU…
VANUATU… AND WALLIS AND FUTUNA.

 

* TSUNAMI WAVES ARE FORECAST TO BE LESS THAN 0.3 METERS ABOVE
THE TIDE LEVEL FOR THE COASTS OF

AUSTRALIA… CHILE… CHINA… CHUUK… COLOMBIA… COSTA
RICA… GUAM… HAWAII… HONDURAS… HOWLAND AND BAKER…
INDONESIA… JAPAN… JARVIS ISLAND… JOHNSTON ATOLL…
KERMADEC ISLANDS… KOSRAE… MALAYSIA… MARSHALL
ISLANDS… MIDWAY ISLAND… NAURU… NEW CALEDONIA…
NICARAGUA… NIUE… NORTHERN MARIANAS… NORTHWESTERN
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS… PALAU… PALMYRA ISLAND… PANAMA…
PAPUA NEW GUINEA… PERU… PHILIPPINES… PITCAIRN
ISLANDS… POHNPEI… RUSSIA… SOLOMON ISLANDS…
TAIWAN… TONGA… VIETNAM… WAKE ISLAND… AND YAP.

 

* ACTUAL AMPLITUDES AT THE COAST MAY VARY FROM FORECAST
AMPLITUDES DUE TO UNCERTAINTIES IN THE FORECAST AND LOCAL
FEATURES. IN PARTICULAR MAXIMUM TSUNAMI AMPLITUDES ON ATOLLS
AND AT LOCATIONS WITH FRINGING OR BARRIER REEFS WILL LIKELY
BE MUCH SMALLER THAN THE FORECAST INDICATES.

* FOR OTHER AREAS COVERED BY THIS PRODUCT A FORECAST HAS NOT
YET BEEN COMPUTED. THE FORECAST WILL BE EXPANDED IF
NECESSARY IN SUBSEQUENT PRODUCTS.

 

RECOMMENDED ACTIONS
——————-

* GOVERNMENT AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR THREATENED COASTAL AREAS
SHOULD TAKE ACTION TO INFORM AND INSTRUCT ANY COASTAL
POPULATIONS AT RISK IN ACCORDANCE WITH THEIR OWN
EVALUATION… PROCEDURES AND THE LEVEL OF THREAT.

* PERSONS LOCATED IN THREATENED COASTAL AREAS SHOULD STAY ALERT
FOR INFORMATION AND FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS FROM NATIONAL AND
LOCAL AUTHORITIES.

 

ESTIMATED TIMES OF ARRIVAL
————————–

* ESTIMATED TIMES OF ARRIVAL -ETA- OF THE INITIAL TSUNAMI WAVE
FOR PLACES WITHIN THREATENED REGIONS ARE GIVEN BELOW. ACTUAL
ARRIVAL TIMES MAY DIFFER AND THE INITIAL WAVE MAY NOT BE THE
LARGEST. A TSUNAMI IS A SERIES OF WAVES AND THE TIME BETWEEN
WAVES CAN BE FIVE MINUTES TO ONE HOUR.

LOCATION REGION COORDINATES ETA(UTC)
————————————————————
BALTRA ISLAND ECUADOR 0.5S 90.3W 0804 09/08
HIVA OA FRENCH POLYNESIA 10.0S 139.0W 1248 09/08
CHRISTMAS ISLAN KIRIBATI 2.0N 157.5W 1422 09/08
MALDEN ISLAND KIRIBATI 3.9S 154.9W 1426 09/08
FLINT ISLAND KIRIBATI 11.4S 151.8W 1426 09/08
PAPEETE FRENCH POLYNESIA 17.5S 149.6W 1450 09/08
RAPA ITI FRENCH POLYNESIA 27.6S 144.3W 1502 09/08
PENRYN ISLAND COOK ISLANDS 8.9S 157.8W 1505 09/08
TUBUAI FRENCH POLYNESIA 23.3S 149.5W 1510 09/08
RAROTONGA COOK ISLANDS 21.2S 159.8W 1609 09/08
PUKAPUKA ISLAND COOK ISLANDS 10.8S 165.9W 1619 09/08
NUKUNONU ISLAND TOKELAU 9.2S 171.8W 1652 09/08
PAGO PAGO AMERICAN SAMOA 14.3S 170.7W 1705 09/08
APIA SAMOA 13.8S 171.8W 1714 09/08
WALLIS ISLAND WALLIS AND FUTUN 13.3S 176.3W 1746 09/08
FUNAFUTI ISLAND TUVALU 7.9S 178.5E 1751 09/08
FUTUNA ISLAND WALLIS AND FUTUN 14.3S 178.2W 1812 09/08
TARAWA ISLAND KIRIBATI 1.5N 173.0E 1832 09/08
SUVA FIJI 18.1S 178.4E 1915 09/08
KAINGAROA CHATH NEW ZEALAND 43.7S 176.3W 1955 09/08
WAITANGI CHATHA NEW ZEALAND 43.9S 176.6W 1957 09/08
ESPERITU SANTO VANUATU 15.1S 167.3E 1959 09/08
ANATOM ISLAND VANUATU 20.2S 169.9E 2020 09/08
CAPE ADARE ANTARCTICA 71.0S 170.0E 2155 09/08

 

POTENTIAL IMPACTS
—————–

* A TSUNAMI IS A SERIES OF WAVES. THE TIME BETWEEN WAVE CRESTS
CAN VARY FROM 5 MINUTES TO AN HOUR. THE HAZARD MAY PERSIST
FOR MANY HOURS OR LONGER AFTER THE INITIAL WAVE.

* IMPACTS CAN VARY SIGNIFICANTLY FROM ONE SECTION OF COAST TO
THE NEXT DUE TO LOCAL BATHYMETRY AND THE SHAPE AND ELEVATION
OF THE SHORELINE.

* IMPACTS CAN ALSO VARY DEPENDING UPON THE STATE OF THE TIDE AT
THE TIME OF THE MAXIMUM TSUNAMI WAVES.

* PERSONS CAUGHT IN THE WATER OF A TSUNAMI MAY DROWN… BE
CRUSHED BY DEBRIS IN THE WATER… OR BE SWEPT OUT TO SEA.

 

TSUNAMI OBSERVATIONS
——————–

* THE FOLLOWING ARE TSUNAMI WAVE OBSERVATIONS FROM COASTAL
AND/OR DEEP-OCEAN SEA LEVEL GAUGES AT THE INDICATED
LOCATIONS. THE MAXIMUM TSUNAMI HEIGHT IS MEASURED WITH
RESPECT TO THE NORMAL TIDE LEVEL.

GAUGE TIME OF MAXIMUM WAVE
COORDINATES MEASURE TSUNAMI PERIOD
GAUGE LOCATION LAT LON (UTC) HEIGHT (MIN)
————————————————————-
SANTACRUZ GALAPAGOS 0.7S 90.3W 0835 0.15M/ 0.5FT 20
ZIHUATANEJO MX 17.6N 101.6W 0627 0.21M/ 0.7FT 50
ACAJUTLA SV 13.6N 89.8W 0634 0.14M/ 0.5FT 30
BALTRA GALAPAGS EC 0.4S 90.3W 0806 0.17M/ 0.5FT 26
MANZANILLO MX 19.1N 104.3W 0710 0.24M/ 0.8FT 38
CHIAPAS MX 14.7N 92.4W 0617 0.50M/ 1.7FT 30
ACAPULCO MX 16.8N 99.9W 0635 0.72M/ 2.4FT 24
DART 32411 5.0N 90.8W 0642 0.03M/ 0.1FT 26
LAZARO CARDENAS MX 17.9N 102.2W 0646 0.14M/ 0.4FT 48
SALINA CRUZ MX 16.2N 95.2W 0635 1.01M/ 3.3FT 46
DART 43413 10.8N 100.1W 0547 0.08M/ 0.2FT 24
PUERTO ANGEL MX 15.7N 96.5W 0517 0.29M/ 1.0FT 24
HUATULCO MX 15.8N 96.1W 0514 0.69M/ 2.3FT 12

 

NEXT UPDATE AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
————————————–

* THE NEXT MESSAGE WILL BE ISSUED IN ONE HOUR… OR SOONER IF
THE SITUATION WARRANTS.

* AUTHORITATIVE INFORMATION ABOUT THE EARTHQUAKE FROM THE U.S.
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY CAN BE FOUND ON THE INTERNET AT
EARTHQUAKE.USGS.GOV/EARTHQUAKES -ALL LOWER CASE-.

* FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT THIS EVENT MAY BE FOUND AT
PTWC.WEATHER.GOV AND AT WWW.TSUNAMI.GOV.

* COASTAL REGIONS OF HAWAII… AMERICAN SAMOA… GUAM… AND
CNMI SHOULD REFER TO PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER MESSAGES
SPECIFICALLY FOR THOSE PLACES THAT CAN BE FOUND AT
PTWC.WEATHER.GOV.

* COASTAL REGIONS OF CALIFORNIA… OREGON… WASHINGTON…
BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALASKA SHOULD ONLY REFER TO U.S.
NATIONAL TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER MESSAGES THAT CAN BE FOUND
AT NTWC.ARH.NOAA.GOV.

$$

 

 


Tsunami evacuation buildings (TEBs): Indonesia preparing for the next tsunami

http://www.wmpllc.org/ojs-2.4.2/index.php/jem/article/view/562

TEBs: Document

Tsunami evacuation buildings and evacuation planning in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

Hendri Yuzal, MURP, Karl Kim, PhD, Pradip Pant, PhD, Eric Yamashita, MURP
Journal of Emergency Management

Abstract

Indonesia, a country of more than 17,000 islands, is exposed to many hazards. A magnitude 9.1 earthquake struck off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 26, 2004. It triggered a series of tsunami waves that spread across the Indian Ocean causing damage in 11 countries. Banda Aceh, the capital city of Aceh Province, was among the most damaged. More than 31,000 people were killed. At the time, there were no early warning systems nor evacuation buildings that could provide safe refuge for residents. Since then, four tsunami evacuation buildings (TEBs) have been constructed in the Meuraxa subdistrict of Banda Aceh. Based on analysis of evacuation routes and travel times, the capacity of existing TEBs is examined. Existing TEBs would not be able to shelter all of the at-risk population. In this study, additional buildings and locations for TEBs are proposed and residents are assigned to the closest TEBs. While TEBs may be part of a larger system of tsunami mitigation efforts, other strategies and approaches need to be considered. In addition to TEBs, robust detection, warning and alert systems, land use planning, training, exercises, and other preparedness strategies are essential to tsunami risk reduction.


M 7.9 – 41km WNW of Panguna, Papua New Guinea

ShakeMap Intensity image

WEAK53 PAAQ 220440
TIBAK1

Tsunami Information Statement Number 1
NWS National Tsunami Warning Center Palmer AK
840 PM PST Sat Jan 21 2017

…THIS IS A TSUNAMI INFORMATION STATEMENT FOR ALASKA, BRITISH
COLUMBIA, WASHINGTON, OREGON AND CALIFORNIA…

EVALUATION
———-
* There is no tsunami danger for the areas listed above.

* Based on the depth of the earthquake a tsunami
is not expected.

* An earthquake has occurred with parameters listed below.

PRELIMINARY EARTHQUAKE PARAMETERS
———————————
* The following parameters are based on a rapid preliminary
assessment and changes may occur.

* Magnitude      8.0
* Origin Time    1930 AKST Jan 21 2017
2030  PST Jan 21 2017
0430  UTC Jan 22 2017
* Coordinates    6.1 South 155.2 East
* Depth          104 miles
* Location       near the Solomon Islands

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND NEXT UPDATE
————————————–
* Refer to the internet site ntwc.arh.noaa.gov for
additional information.

* Pacific coastal regions outside California, Oregon,
Washington, British Columbia and Alaska should refer to the
Pacific Tsunami Warning Center messages at ptwc.weather.gov.

* This will be the only U.S. National Tsunami Warning center
message for this event unless additional information becomes
available.

$$

 

 


Japan’s tsunami warning system

The Verge

“….it took about half an hour for the waves to reach the shoreline. A three-foot tsunami hit the coast of Soma, 185 miles up the coast from Tokyo, a little more than an hour after the temblor, and another 4.6-foot tsunami washed ashore at Sendai, another 40 miles north, an hour later. This was the largest tsunami in that region since the 30-foot tsunami of 2011……

As of 7:39AM local time, there were 150 people at 5 evacuation centers…… Five minor injuries have been reported. The cooling equipment for a reactor at the No. 2 power plant at Fukushima, Fukushima Daini stopped working, but resumed functioning at 7:47AM local time…… (Fukushima Daini is not the plant that caused a nuclear disaster after being damaged by the 2011 quake and tsunami…..”


A powerful 7.8-magnitude earthquake has jolted New Zealand’s South Island and triggered a tsunami.

ShakeMap Intensity image


** All 22 early warning tsunami buoys placed in Indonesian waters following the 2004 tsunami no longer work because of theft and vandalism.

Bloomberg

 

**  “……Indonesia’s 17,000 islands are especially prone to earthquakes because the country straddles the Ring of Fire, an arc of fault lines and volcanoes that causes frequent seismic upheavals. At least 160,000 people were killed on Sumatra Island as a result of the 9.1 magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami on Boxing Day in 2004…..”

DART Buoys


Categories

Recent Posts

Archives

Admin