Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Kids-Infants’ Category

Scorn for Humanity: Adam Lanza kept a spreadsheet of 400 mass murderers, detailing their massacres and the weapons they used

Daily Mail

  • Lanza murdered 20 children, six educators at Sandy Hook Elementary on 12/14/2012 
  • His list had 17 categories, including number of victims and what happened to killer 
  • It went all the way back to 1786 and ended with Derrick Bird’s 2010 massacre 

FBI Archives

Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting

 


Hydoxyurea proves safe for African children with sickle-cell anemia

NYT

“…..About 300,000 babies are born with the disease each year; about 75 percent of them are in Africa, and about 1 percent in the United States……Hydroxyurea has been used for decades in the United States and Europe. But some early animal studies made researchers fear it would make African children more susceptible to local infections, particularly malaria.
The new study followed 600 children in Angola, Uganda, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo who were given the drug for more than two years.
As with children in wealthy countries, taking the drug daily also made it far less likely they would die or need a blood transfusion because of their sickle-cell disease. They were about half as likely to suffer bouts of severe pain, and somewhat less likely to get other infections.
In an unexpected twist, investigators discovered that the children were about half as likely to get malaria while using hydroxyurea as they had been before the trial started. The reasons are not known……”

12/1/1958: A fire at Our Lady of Angels School in Chicago kills 90 students and 3 nuns.

History

 

 


Yemen: No food, no money, but lots of child brides

NYT

“…..beggars congregate outside supermarkets filled with goods; markets are filled with produce in towns where the hungry eat boiled leaves; and restaurants selling rich food are a few hundred yards from hunger wards filled with desperation, pain and death...…”

UNICEF

“…..In the midst of this national catastrophe, desperate families are increasingly turning to child marriage: Today, more than two thirds of girls are married off before the age of 18, compared to 50 percent before the crisis began.

Parents marry off their daughters to be relieved of the cost of their care, or because they believe a husband’s family can offer better protection. Families also sell their daughters for dowry payments to cope with conflict-related hardship. Child brides are especially common in parts of Yemen that host large numbers of displaced people…..”


From August 2014 through October 2018, CDC has received information on a total of 404 confirmed cases of AFM across the US; most of the cases have occurred in children.

CDC

Confirmed AFM cases reported to CDC: Aug-14 = 21, Sep-14 = 51, Oct-14 = 24, Nov-14 = 15, Dec-14 = 9, Jan-15 = 2, Feb-15 = 2, Mar-15 = 1, Apr-15 = 0, May-15 = 1, Jun-15 = 0, Jul-15 = 2, Aug-15 = 3, Sep-15 = 1, Oct-15 = 4, Nov-15 = 2, Dec-15 = 4, Jan-16 = 1, Feb-16 = 0, Mar-16 = 6, Apr-16 = 1, May-16 = 6, Jun-16 = 9, Jul-16 = 12, Aug-16 = 30, Sep-16 = 44, Oct-16 = 27, Nov-16 = 9, Dec-16 = 4, Jan-17 = 1, Feb-17 = 5, Mar-17 = 5, Apr-17 =3, May-17 =2, Jun-17 = 3, Jul-17 = 2, Aug-17 = 1, Sep-17 = 4, Oct-17 = 0, Nov-17 = 2, Dec-17 = 4, Jan-18 = 0, Feb-18 = 4, Mar-18 = 0, Apr-18 = 2, May-18 = 2, Jun-18 = 7, Jul-18 =6, Aug-18 = 18, Sep-18 = 23


Supporting Children & Families Disasters: On-Line Resources

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How does a national prohibition on corporal punishment affect violence in kids?

BMJ

Elgar FJ, Donnelly PD, Michaelson V, et al

Corporal punishment bans and physical fighting in adolescents: an ecological study of 88 countries

 

“…..Country prohibition of corporal punishment is associated with less youth violence. Whether bans precipitated changes in child discipline or reflected a social milieu that inhibits youth violence remains unclear due to the study design and data limitations. However, these results support the hypothesis that societies that prohibit the use of corporal punishment are less violent for youth to grow up in than societies that have not.….”


“…..There is now a clear and present danger of an imminent and great, big famine engulfing Yemen…..”

NYT

“……And in the hushed hunger wards, ailing infants hover between life and death. Of nearly two million malnourished children in Yemen, 400,000 are considered critically ill — a figure projected to rise by one quarter in the coming months...….”

 


CDC: 62 cases of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM)

CDC

Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a rare condition. It affects a person’s nervous system, specifically the spinal cord, causing weakness in one or more limbs. AFM or neurologic conditions like it have a variety of causes such as viruses, environmental toxins, and genetic disorders.

Since August 2014, CDC has seen an increased number of people across the United States with AFM. We have not confirmed the cause for the majority of these cases. CDC has been actively investigating these AFM cases, and we continue to receive information about suspected AFM cases.

Confirmed AFM cases reported to CDC: Aug-14 = 21, Sep-14 = 51, Oct-14 = 24, Nov-14 = 15, Dec-14 = 9, Jan-15 = 2, Feb-15 = 2, Mar-15 = 1, Apr-15 = 0, May-15 = 1, Jun-15 = 0, Jul-15 = 2, Aug-15 = 3, Sep-15 = 1, Oct-15 = 4, Nov-15 = 2, Dec-15 = 4, Jan-16 = 1, Feb-16 = 0, Mar-16 = 6, Apr-16 = 1, May-16 = 6, Jun-16 = 9, Jul-16 = 12, Aug-16 = 30, Sep-16 = 44, Oct-16 = 27, Nov-16 = 9, Dec-16 = 4, Jan-17 = 1, Feb-17 = 5, Mar-17 = 5, Apr-17 =3, May-17 =2, Jun-17 = 3, Jul-17 = 2, Aug-17 = 1, Sep-17 = 4, Oct-17 = 0, Nov-17 = 2, Dec-17 = 4, Jan-18 = 0, Feb-18 = 4, Mar-18 = 0, Apr-18 = 2, May-18 = 2, Jun-18 = 7, Jul-18 =6, Aug-18 = 18, Sep-18 = 23

 

Updated October 16, 2018

^ Confirmed AFM cases that CDC has been made aware of as of October 16, 2018 with onset of the condition through September 30, 2018. The case counts are subject to change.

* The data shown from August 2014 to July 2015 are based on the AFM investigation case definition: onset of acute limb weakness on or after August 1, 2014, and a magnetic resonance image (MRI) showing a spinal cord lesion largely restricted to gray matter in a patient age ≤21 years.

† The data shown from August 2015 to present are based on the AFM case definition adopted by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE): acute onset of focal limb weakness and an MRI showing spinal cord lesion largely restricted to gray matter and spanning one or more spinal segments, regardless of age.

For more information, visit the Case Definitions page.

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What This Graph Shows

The graph shows the number of AFM cases confirmed by CDC as of October 16, 2018, with onset of the condition through September 30, 2018.

  • So far in 2018, there are 62 confirmed cases of AFM. (Note: The cases occurred in 22 states across the U.S.)
    Note: These 62 confirmed cases are among the total of 127 reports that CDC received of patients under investigation (PUIs). CDC recently received increased reports for PUIs with onset of symptoms in August and September. CDC and state and local health departments are still investigating some of these PUIs. With enhanced efforts working with local and state health departments and hospitals, we were able to confirm a number these cases faster. CDC is now providing the number of patients still under investigation so people can better anticipate increases in confirmed cases over the coming months.
  • In 2017, CDC received information for 33 confirmed cases of AFM. (Note: The cases occurred in 16 states across the U.S.)
  • In 2016, 149 people were confirmed to have AFM. (Note: The cases occurred in 39 states across the U.S. and DC)
  • In 2015, 22 people were confirmed to have AFM. (Note: The cases occurred in 17 states across the U.S.)
  • From August to December 2014, 120 people were confirmed to have AFM. (Note: The cases occurred in 34 states across the U.S.)
  • The case counts represent only those cases for which information has been sent to and confirmed by CDC.

It is currently difficult to interpret trends of the AFM data. Collecting information about suspected AFM cases is relatively new, and it is voluntary for most states to send this information to CDC. There may initially be more variability in the AFM data from year to year making it difficult to interpret or compare case counts between years.

We defer to the states to release additional information on cases as they choose.

Number of confirmed AFM cases by year of illness onset, 2014-2018*

Number of confirmed AFM cases by year of illness onset table
Year Number confirmed cases Number of states with confirmed cases
2014 (Aug-Dec) 120 34
2015 22 17
2016 149 39 (includes DC)
2017 33 16
2018 (Jan-Oct 16) 62 22

*The case counts are subject to change.

What We Know

Since 2014, CDC has learned the following about the AFM cases:

  • Most patients are children.
  • The patients’ symptoms have been most similar to complications of infection with certain viruses, including poliovirus, non-polio enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and West Nile virus.
    • All of the AFM cases have tested negative for poliovirus.
    • Enteroviruses most commonly cause mild illness. They can also cause neurologic illness, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and AFM, but these are rare.
  • CDC has tested many different specimens from AFM patients for a wide range of pathogens (germs) that can cause AFM. To date, no pathogen (germ) has been consistently detected in the patients’ spinal fluid; a pathogen detected in the spinal fluid would be good evidence to indicate the cause of AFM since this condition affects the spinal cord.
  • The increase in AFM cases in 2014 coincided with a national outbreak of severe respiratory illness among people caused by enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). Among the people confirmed with AFM, CDC did not consistently detect EV-D68 in every patient. During 2015, CDC did not receive information about large EV-D68 outbreaks in the United States, and laboratories reported only limited EV-D68 detections to CDC’s National Enterovirus Surveillance System (NESS). During 2016, CDC was informed of a few localized clusters in the United States. Learn more about EV-D68.

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What We Don’t Know

Among the people who were diagnosed with AFM since August 2014:

  • The cause of most of the AFM cases remains unknown.
  • We don’t know what caused the increase in AFM cases starting in 2014.
  • We have not yet determined who is at higher risk for developing AFM, or the reasons why they may be at higher risk.
  • We do not yet know the long-term effects of AFM. We know that some patients diagnosed with AFM have recovered quickly, and some continue to have paralysis and require ongoing care.

See prevention for information about how to protect your family from viruses that may cause AFM.

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What CDC Is Doing

CDC is actively investigating AFM cases and monitoring disease activity. We are working closely with healthcare providers and state and local health departments to increase awareness for AFM. We are encouraging healthcare providers to recognize and report suspected cases of AFM to their health departments, and for health departments to send this information to CDC to help us understand the nationwide burden of AFM. CDC is also actively looking for risk factors and possible causes of this condition.

CDC activities include:

  • urging healthcare providers to be vigilant for AFM among their patients, and to send information about suspected cases to their health departments
  • verifying clinical information of suspected AFM cases submitted by health departments, and working with health departments and neurologists to classify cases using a case definition adopted by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE)
  • testing specimens, including stool, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid, from suspected AFM cases
  • working with healthcare providers, experts, and state and local health departments to investigate and better understand the AFM cases, including potential causes and how often the condition occurs
  • providing new and updated information to healthcare providers, health departments, policymakers, the public, and partners in various formats, such as scientific journals and meetings, and CDC’s AFM website and social media
  • using multiple research methods to further explore the potential association of AFM with possible causes as well as risk factors for AFM. This includes collaborating with experts to review MRI scans of people from the past 10 years to determine how many AFM cases occurred before 2014, updating treatment and management protocols, and engaging with several academic centers to conduct active surveillance simultaneously for both AFM and respiratory viruses.

For more information, see


Nobel Peace Prize Awarded To Fighters Against Sexual Slavery

NYT

…..Dr. Mukwege campaigned relentlessly to shine a spotlight on the plight of Congolese women, even after nearly being assassinated a few years ago. Ms. Murad, who was enslaved by the Islamic State, also known as ISIS, has told and retold her story of suffering to organizations around the world, helping to persuade the United States State Department to recognize the genocide of her people at the hands of the terrorist group…..”


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