Global & Disaster Medicine

Archive for the ‘Migration’ Category

Lebanon hit by Storm Norma on January 6, heavily impacted at least 360 informal refugee settlements and putting 850 others at risk.

Al Jazeera


Humanitarian Intervention Guide (mhGAP-HIG): Clinical management of mental, neurological and substance use conditions in humanitarian emergencies.

World Health Organization and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. mhGAP Humanitarian Intervention Guide (mhGAP-HIG): Clinical management of mental, neurological and substance use conditions in humanitarian emergencies. Geneva: WHO, 2015.

The target group for WHO work on mental health and psychosocial support in emergencies is any population exposed to extreme stressors, such as refugees, internally displaced persons, disaster survivors and terrorism-, war- or genocide-exposed populations.

The WHO Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse emphasizes that the number of persons exposed to extreme stressors is large and that exposure to extreme stressors is a risk factor for mental health and social problems. The Department’s work on mental health in emergencies focuses mostly on resource-poor countries, where most populations exposed to natural disasters and war live.

 

Management of physical health conditions in adults with severe mental disorders

Preventable physical health conditions lead to premature mortality in people with severe mental disorders, reducing their life span by 10-20 years. The majority of these premature deaths are due to physical health conditions.

The physical health of people with severe mental disorders is commonly overlooked, not only by themselves and people around them, but also by health systems, resulting in crucial physical health disparities and limited access to health services. Many lives can be saved by ensuring that people with severe mental disorders receive treatment.

WHO’s “Guidelines on management of physical health conditions in adults with severe mental disorders” provide evidence-based, up-to-date recommendations to practitioners on how to recognize and manage comorbid physical and mental health conditions.

 


WHO: Mental Health of Refugees and Migrants

WHO

Being a refugee or a migrant does not, in itself, make individuals significantly more vulnerable to mental disorders, but refugees and migrants can be exposed to various stress factors that influence their mental well-being.

Refugees and migrants have often faced war, persecution and hardship in their country of origin. Many will have experienced displacement and difficulties in transit countries and embarked on dangerous travels. Lack of information, uncertainty about immigration status, potential hostility, changing policies, and undignified and protracted detention all contribute to additional stress.

Furthermore, forced migration requires multiple adaptations in short periods of time, making them more vulnerable to abuse and neglect. Pre-existing social and mental health problems can thus be exacerbated.

Clinical Management of Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Conditions in Humanitarian Emergencies


WHO: Proposed Health Component in the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration

WHO

Proposed Health Component in the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration

Document

To achieve the vision of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals – to leave no one behind – it is imperative that the health rights and needs of migrants be adequately addressed in the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM). Despite health being a prerequisite for sustainable development, health is missing from the six thematic sessions of the modalities for development of the GCM, as well as from the 24 elements contained in Annex II of the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants. To address this, in its 140th session in January 2017, the WHO Executive Board requested that its Secretariat develop a framework of priorities and guiding principles to promote the health of refugees and migrants.

In May 2017, the World Health Assembly endorsed resolution 70.15 on ‘Promoting the health of refugees and migrants’. The resolution encourages Member States to use the Framework of priorities and guiding principles to promote the health of refugees and migrants at all levels and to ensure that health is adequately addressed both in the Global Compact for Refugees (GCR) and the GCM.

Based on the Framework, to further provide health resources for the development of the draft GCM, WHO in close cooperation with IOM, ILO, OHCHR, UNAIDS, and other stakeholders, developed the Proposed Health Component in the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration. The document proposes eight actionable commitments and the means of implementation.


WHO: Addressing the health needs of refugees and migrants by 2030

WHO

Reports on situation analysis and practices in addressing the health needs of refugees and migrants

To achieve the vision of the 2030 Agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals, to leave no one behind, it is imperative that the health needs of refugees and migrants be adequately addressed. In its 140th session in January 2017, the Executive Board requested that its Secretariat develop a framework of priorities and guiding principles to promote the health of refugees and migrants. In May 2017, the World Health Assembly endorsed resolution 70.15 on Promoting the health of refugees and migrants. This resolution urges Member States to strengthen international cooperation regarding the health of refugees and migrants in line with the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants. It urged Member States to consider providing the necessary health-related assistance through bilateral and international cooperation to those countries hosting and receiving large populations of refugees and migrants, as well as using the Framework of priorities and guiding principles at all levels. In addition, the resolution requested the Director-General to conduct a situation analysis and identify best practices, experiences and lessons learned in order to contribute to the development of a global action plan for the Seventy-second World Health Assembly in 2019.

In alignment with World Health Assembly resolution 70.15, WHO made an online global call from August 2017 to January 2018 for contributions on evidence-based information, best practices, experiences and lessons learned in addressing the health needs of refugees and migrants. Between August 2017 and January 2018, 199 submissions were received, covering 85 countries, from 52 Member States and partners such as the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the International Labour Organization (ILO). The submissions included valuable information on the current situation of refugees and migrants, health challenges associated with migration and forced displacement, past and ongoing practices and interventions in promoting the health of refugees and migrants, legal frameworks in place for addressing the health needs of this population, lessons learned and recommendations for the future.

Reports

Practices


The number of migrants who died trying to reach the shores of southern European countries fell to 2,262 last year, from over 3,000 in 2017.

NPR

“…..The total number of migrants arriving in Europe by sea fell by a third in 2018, to just under 115,000 people….”


About 450 migrants, mostly men and boys, have been given temporary shelter at a sports stadium in Mexico City

BBC

 


The Honduran caravan — as many as 4,000 people by some estimates — coming to the border

NYT

“……The caravan’s participants are making the journey for several reasons. Some say they are fleeing gangs that terrorize their neighborhoods and are seeking sanctuary in Mexico or the United States. Others are in search of work and more stability for their families...…”

 


“….Moria, a camp of around 9,000 people living in a space designed for just 3,100, where squalid conditions and an inscrutable asylum process have led to what aid groups describe as a mental health crisis…..”

NYT

“……The overcrowding is so extreme that asylum seekers spend as much as 12 hours a day waiting in line for food that is sometimes moldy. Last week, there were about 80 people for each shower, and around 70 per toilet, with aid workers complaining about raw sewage leaking into tents where children are living. Sexual assaults, knife attacks and suicide attempts are common...…..”

 


Moria: State of Emergency

MSF

An open letter from MSF clinical psychiatrist Dr Alessandro Barberio, Moria camp, Lesbos, Greece:  “……The vast majority of people I see are presenting with psychotic symptoms, suicidal thoughts – even attempts at suicide – and are confused. Many are unable to meet or perform even their most basic everyday functions, such as sleeping, eating well, maintaining personal hygiene, and communicating...….”

 


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